An Outlook on Science



Reference: Disturbance Theory

The current outlook in science is based on the perspective of “Particles in Void”. In this perspective the substance is identified as made up of discrete solid particles that move in a void made up of empty space. In the 17th century, it was applied by Newton to his mechanics with great success. However, this perspective was unable to explain “action at a distance” in Newton’s theory of gravitation. Newton recognized this shortcoming himself.

A century and half later, Faraday applied the perspective of “Continuum of Substance” to the problem of “action at a distance”. He proposed that invisible force, such as, the electromagnetic phenomena constituted a new substance. The void was actually made up of lines of force that connected material particles, which were really the “centers of force”.

Thus, substance is more than just made up of particles. To Faraday, invisible force underlay the very concept of substance. Newtonian properties like mass and energy belonged to substance. The law of conservation ultimately applied to conservation of substance. To Faraday this meant conservation of force.

From this perspective the empty space was essentially made up of force. This supported the assertion by Descartes that space is the characteristic of extension of substance, and that there is no space in the absence of substance.

Maxwell, in his effort to give a mathematical form to Faraday’s ideas, came up with the theory of electromagnetism. This theory pointed out that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. This revelation was soon followed by the discovery and identification of radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays and gamma radiation as electromagnetic phenomena. All this phenomena  could then be presented as the electromagnetic spectrum of increasing frequency.

But the electromagnetic phenomena was not immediately recognised as the foreshadowing of a new field-substance that was anticipated by Faraday*. The first inkling of this field-substance came with the discovery of quantization by Einstein in 1905, which showed that the wave-like electromagnetic radiation became more particle-like with increasing frequency**.

* The field-substance is considered in the current Quantum Field Theory.
** Einstein got a Nobel Prize for the discovery of quantization.

It only takes some projection from this point to realize that the quantization of field-substance would ultimately lead to the material-substance . The smallest particle of material-substance is atom, but that atom is made up of field-substance. The current science is, however, still wedded to the “Particles in Void” perspective, and not quite ready to make this projection.

In the gamma range of the electromagnetic spectrum we find all the sub-atomic “particles”, which range from electron to neutron. These are field-particles, which do not have a definite structure of mass like that of material-particles. But the current science of particle physics views these field-particles as if they are completely discrete material-particles with mass. It takes the “Continuum of Substance” perspective to make the jump from material-substance to field-substance.

The broader perspective is “Continuum of Substance”. A material particle is the result of ultimate quantization of the field-substance. The material-particle maintains a continuum with the surrounding field-substance. The field-substance is invisible and appears as “empty space”. The “empty space” is empty of material substance, but it is the extension of the field-substance.

Beyond the “empty space” there may be “emptiness” that is devoid of space even. But that is a consideration that is best left to philosophers to ponder upon.

In my view we are at the verge of a revolution in the science of physics. This revolution requires the recognition of the far-reaching affects of quantization—that the “Particles in Void” perspective is a special case of the “Continuum of Substance” perspective at higher quantization.


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