## Cycles and Quantization The field-substance that fills the emptiness is a disturbance. Therefore it is full of ACTIVITY. This activity is expressed as continual oscillations between two states—electric and magnetic. We may refer to this activity as ENERGY.

This activity is made up of oscillations that are repeating themselves interminably at a certain rate. Each repetition is a CYCLE, that has a PERIOD and a WAVELENGTH; and the rate of repetition is the FREQUENCY. Both cycle and frequency are properties of the field-substance.

The international units used for period and wavelength are seconds and meters respectively. But such units are arbitrary. There is no such thing as the smallest frequency. A “fractional frequency” may be expressed in whole numbers with larger unit of time. For example, ½ cycle per sec could be represented by a cycle every 2 seconds. So, we can have frequencies smaller than 1 Hz (cycle per second) without limit.

Energy of field-substance is proportional to its frequency. In international units, the proportionality constant is 6.626176 x 10-34 joule-seconds, called the Planck constant. But this value depends on the unit of time being 1 second.

A frequency expressed in Hz (cycles per second) can be expressed as a unit frequency using a different unit of time. This new unit frequency provides a light quanta, or field-particle, of a different quantization level. Energy would still be proportional to the frequency, when expressed in multiples of this unit frequency, but the proportionality constant will have a different value.

The whole subject of Quantum Mechanics in physics is constructed from this phenomenon of quantization. As frequency increases, the field-particle acquires greater energy and becomes more discrete and penetrating. At the same time the quantization levels occur closer to each other.

With the formation of nucleus of the atom, the unstructured field-substance transitions to structured material-substance. The quantization levels of field-substance become continuous levels of inertia of material substance. Throughout the range of material-substance, the value of inertia varies little compared to the values of quantization for the range of field-substance.

.