Comments on Electric Charge

Electron

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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Electric Charge – Wikipedia

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel and unlike attract. An absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged. The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering, it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and, in chemistry, it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q often denotes charge. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that don’t require consideration of quantum effects.

Force is experienced when electrically charged matter is brought in vicinity of another electrically charged matter. The “charges” seems to be part of fields. The fields interact as if to establish some kind of equilibrium. The interaction takes the form of attractive and repulsive forces. Force implies change in momentum. In case of field, force implies frequency gradient.

The frequency gradient seems to be established by eddy type formation in which frequency increases toward the center of the eddy. The higher frequency at the center represents negative charge; the lower frequency at the periphery represents positive charge. The center is denser in terms of lines of force and appears as a particle in contrast to the periphery. Therefore, electrons are more likely to be observed as particles than positrons.

In an atom the negatively charged “center of electronic region” is aligned with the positively charged “periphery of the nucleus” (see the picture above). This is because nucleus appears at the center of the electronic region. The “periphery of the electronic region” is positively charged as shown. The “center of the nucleus” is negatively charged as shown. It is incorrect to view the whole electron as negative and the whole nucleus as positive. The “attractive force” between electrons and the nucleus is better understood in terms of alignment of the frequency gradient.

An equilibrium is sought in terms of alignment of frequency gradients. Interaction takes place between fields when the frequency gradients are not aligned. So we see attractive and repulsive forces between the charges. We have a frequency gradient within the atom that is well aligned from the center of the nucleus to the outer periphery of the atom and balanced by the eddy-like rotations within the atom.

From Newton’s second law of motion, Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s law we get the dimensions of mass and charge to be the same.

[M] = [Q] = [L3-2]

Mass is the constant of proportionality between force and acceleration.
Force = mass x acceleration

Similarly, charge could be defined as the constant of proportionality between force and frequency.
Force = charge x [velocity of light] x frequency

This is dimensionally accurate. Therefore,
CHARGE = FORCE / (VELOCITY OF LIGHT x FREQUENCY)

The electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces (See also: magnetic field).

The charge, like mass, is closely related to inertia. It is conserved like mass is conserved. It may appear that charge produces EM field, but charge is simply a part of the electromagnetic phenomenon. Movement of charge is the shifting of frequency gradient in the field, and this manifests as force. Normally this frequency gradient is balanced by the eddy-like motion within the field.

Twentieth-century experiments demonstrated that electric charge is quantized; that is, it comes in integer multiples of individual small units called the elementary charge, e, approximately equal to 1.602×10−19 coulombs (except for particles called quarks, which have charges that are integer multiples of ⅓ e). The proton has a charge of +e, and the electron has a charge of −e. The study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is called quantum electrodynamics.

Quantization of electrical charge means that only the multiples of a basic frequency gradient are permitted in the structure of atom. The charge of an electron represents that basic frequency gradient. The electron may be modeled as a 3D vortex in the electromagnetic field. The mathematics of this model may reveal the fundamental frequency gradient. It may also provide a meaning to “conservation of charge” or “conservation of force” as hinted by Michael Faraday. This may lead to understanding of stable configurations of elementary particles and the quantization of properties at atomic dimensions.

It is this gradient of frequency that appears as the four fundamental forces – gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong and weak interactions. The details need to be worked out.

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Comments

  • vinaire  On December 7, 2017 at 5:18 PM

    12/7/2017 – I have updated the above paper considerably.

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