*Reference:** **Disturbance Theory*

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On June 9^{th}, 1952, Einstein stated in the preface of the 15^{th} edition of his “Relativity–The Special and General Theory”,

“In this edition I have added, as a fifth appendix, a presentation of my views on the problem of space in general and on the gradual modifications of our ideas on space resulting from the influence of the relativistic viewpoint. I wished to show that space-time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality. Physical objects are notin space, but these objects arespatially extended. In this way the concept of “empty space” loses is meaning.”

The Disturbance Theory is based on the postulate that space, when disturbed, breaks into electric and magnetic fields. In other words, when space and time come together they transform into energy of disturbance. This transition is seamless, meaning that space, time and energy are intimately related. They show up as wavelength, period and frequency of the disturbance.

The electromagnetic spectrum represents increasing state of disturbance, which ranges from low frequency radio waves to high frequency gamma rays. The disturbance starts to condense in the range of gamma rays until it transforms into matter. In this sense, space, time, energy and matter are fundamentally related.

All stages of the electromagnetic spectrum may be found in the structure of an atom, if we consider the atomic boundary to extend all the way to space. The most condensed disturbance forms the nucleus of the atom.

**Atoms may be looked upon as tiny whirlpools in the sea of electromagnetic field of disturbed space.**

The above shows that not only space, time and energy are intimately related, the energy appears as mass at very high disturbance levels.

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**The Disturbance Levels**

The undisturbed space has no bounds or form. It acquires a form only when it is disturbed. The disturbance appears as a dynamic electromagnetic field that has gradients of disturbance levels. A gradient of disturbance levels has the form of acceleration, force or gravity. Within a uniform disturbance level there is stillness or constant velocity.

The disturbance levels are defined by their wavelength, period and frequency. The wavelength and period maintain a constant ratio ‘c’. The frequency is the inverse of period. This may be shown symbolically as

*λ / T = c*

*f = 1/T*

*Where, λ is the wavelength associated with space;*

* T is the period associated with time;*

* c is a universal constant referred to as speed of light;*

* and, f is the frequency associated with energy*

The electromagnetic spectrum covers a large range of frequencies as radio and micro waves, infra-red, visible and ultra-violet light, X and Gamma ionizing radiation, and subatomic particles. These frequencies may be expressed more conveniently on a logarithmic scale of base 2. The logarithmic form of frequency is referred to as Disturbance Level (D).

*D = log _{2} (f)*

**So we have a fundamental relationship among space, time, energy and matter.**

By equating space-time with energy-mass, the Disturbance Theory hopes to bring about an interpretation that makes the theory of relativity consistent with quantum mechanics and Newton’s theory of motion.

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**Space, Time & Reality**

We live on a material plane, and so we view space, time and energy from the viewpoint of matter. Our reality is the fact of matter.

Matter appears at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is highly condensed disturbance. If we look at the wavelength of disturbance as the unit of space, it is infinitesimal at the level of matter. Similarly, the unit of time as period of disturbance is also infinitesimal at the level of matter. This makes the calculus of space and time possible. But this is so at the level of matter only and not at other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. There is continuity at disturbance levels lower than matter but it is of a different sort. At these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum the wavelength and period is finite and the reality can be very different, but we do not get to experience it ordinarily.

We live on earth. We are connected to matter all the time. Therefore, we perceive space and time in infinitesimal increments. This brings smoothness of continuity to our physical senses. It forms the basis of our knowledge. Euclidean geometry and Newtonian mechanics has its basis in it.

But how is it out in the interstellar space? How does one experience space and time away from matter—even away from the matter of the spaceship that carried us there, or away from the matter that constitutes our bodies? What is space and time like when its units in terms of wavelength and period are no longer infinitesimal?

How do we visualize an electromagnetic field spread over vast interstellar space in which finite wavelength, period and frequency are changing dynamically. Here the gradients in frequencies bring about the sense of acceleration, force or gravity. It is like living within Faraday’s lines of force that come together, and then spread out in an eternal cosmic dance.

Like a blurred vision, the location in space and time gets blurred far from material surface of a planet. A location can be defined with pin-point precision on a material surface only. The GPS signals that travel to a satellite and back require relativistic correction. This is because the location of satellite is a bit blurred relative to the locations on earth.

**The theory of relativity gets it right about the blurring of the very nature of space and time.**

Dark energy and matter in the interstellar space has no reasonable explanation at the moment. The concept of disturbed space might be able to provide an explanation.

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**Mathematics**

Relativistic mathematics of Einstein is based on MRF (material reference frame). The Disturbance Theory proposes mathematics based on SRF (space reference frame). SRF math is yet to be developed. It should lead to similar space-time correction.

MRF math uses the concept of velocity, which is applicable only for a specialized view of space and time near the surfaces of planets.

**SRF math shall use the concept of disturbance levels, instead of velocity. **

The concept of disturbance level is applicable to all locations near or far from planets.

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