Category Archives: Physics Book

The Physics Book.

Matter & Void

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The first thing we observe about the concepts of matter and void is that there is assumed to be a sharp discontinuity at the interface between them. Since objectivity follows the law of continuity, we expect matter not to stop abruptly, but to thin out gradually, until there is complete absence of matter (void). We, therefore, need to examine the interface between matter and void more closely.

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Matter

We use a more general term “substance” for matter because, matter is substantial to us to the degree it impacts our senses. Basically, matter is a phenomenon that we sense through our five physical senses. Then we use the mental sense to combine the input from those physical senses to arrive at deeper understanding. This has led us to the discovery of the atomic nature of matter.

From solids to gases, matter has a lessening impact. That means matter thins out as it changes from a solid state to a gaseous state. This has the effect of matter reducing in density. The atomic theory explains it in terms of atoms moving farther apart. Therefore, in order to study the transition from matter to void, we need to take a closer look at atoms.

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Atoms

In ancient times atoms were visualized to be matter particles that were very small, solid, indivisible and permanent. Newton (1642–1727) theorized that such particles have mass, motion and inertia, and they interact with each other through force. Therefore, a particle, such as, atom could be represented by a mathematical point called center of mass.

The modern atomic theory was born at the beginning of 19th century, and its first application was in the subject of Chemistry. Dalton (1766–1844) theorized that atoms of the same element are alike, but atoms of different elements are different; atoms of different elements combine in certain definite ratios. The idea of atoms being hard, solid and impenetrable particles, continued to be held.

However, some scientists disagreed. Boscovich (1711–1787) theorized that atoms cannot be hard, rigid, massive spheres because they cannot change their velocity instantaneously upon collision, as it violated the law of continuity. He visualized atoms as point particles enveloped by force.

Faraday (1791–1867) found that when he tried to explain electrical conduction using atoms as solid particles separated by space, it led to contradictions. The Boscovich model explained not only electrical conduction, but also “action at a distance” without using the postulate of aether. He saw atoms as “centers of force” from which “tubes of force” extended connecting one atom to another. Force was very concentrated at these centers, but it spread out and filled all space between the atoms. Faraday’s view of nature of matter is expressed in detail in this letter: “A speculation touching Electric Conduction and the Nature of Matter”. We shall further explore this view below.

According to current atomic models, every atom is composed of a hard, point-like nucleus surrounded by clouds of electrons, which are 1800 times lighter. More than 99.94% of an atom’s mass is concentrated in the nucleus that occupies only 0.01% of the atomic volume.

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Electronic Substance

Physics treats electrons as particles. In truth, electrons do not have centers of mass, so they cannot be differentiated from one another as real particles. No boundary separates one electron from another, or from the void. It is just a particle-less, fluid-like continuum that fills the atom. The consideration of electrons as “particles” comes from a mathematical treatment of discrete sub-atomic reactions.

Even physics considers electrons to have a wave-like nature. It talks about “electron clouds” within the atom that fill over 99% of the atomic volume. This writer finds it more appropriate to consider the electron region to be filled with particle-less, fluid-like continuum made up of layers of different consistencies. To be more real, we shall use the term “electronic substance” in place of electrons.

From Faraday’s point of view, the electronic substance is pure force, and the nucleus of the atom is the “center of force”. The apparent solidity of the nucleus comes from the extreme concentration of the electronic substance at the center of the atom. This makes the nucleus appear 1800 times more dense than the region around it. But there is continuity from the nucleus to the surrounding electronic substance. There is no gap.

The above description does not contradict any experimental data. In this model, the “particles” described by the standard model of particle physics are viewed as “energy particles”. These energy particles are energies of sub-atomic reactions. They are not actual particles in space.

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Beyond the Atom

Atoms are centers from which matter spreads out into space around them. It loses its consistency very fast and appears as fluid-like electronic substance. This electronic substance, like Faraday’s force, extends out and connects to other atoms. Physics does not define hard boundary for atoms. Mathematically, the electron is a wave function that may extend out to any distance.

So, the space beyond the atom is not empty. Besides electronic substance, it is filled with cosmic microwave background, light and other forms of radiation. This radiation is a fast moving, extremely thin, fluid-like substance that has wave-like properties; and it is not a wave in some postulated substance called aether. Faraday anticipated this way before other scientists in his ideas expressed in this letter: “Thoughts on Ray Vibrations.”

Physics ascribes electromagnetic properties to this radiation and considers it to be made up of discrete particle-like quanta. The idea of quantum is based on the discovery that the energy of radiation is proportional to its frequency, as opposed to the energy of a wave that is proportional to the square of its amplitude. This confirms that radiation is a substance and that it is not a disturbance in an aethereal medium. A quantum is an “energy particle” similar to the electron and other particles, i.e., it is the energy of discrete interactions observed, as of light with metals in photoelectric phenomenon. In reality, radiation is a continuum in space.

According to Faraday’s proposal, radiation is also “force”. It is part of the same line of force that starts at an atom somewhere and spreads out into space to finally terminate at some other atom somewhere. In other words, the electronic substance ends up as radiation as it loses its consistency further by spreading out in space.

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Conclusion

We arrive at the following conclusions:

  • Matter appears hard, solid and permanent because of the concentration of its substance.
  • Matter thins out at first as electronic substance and then further as radiation.
  • Any discrete appearance of matter as material and energy particles is due to discrete interactions among itself and with our senses.
  • Where this thinning out of matter ends and void begins may only be speculated.

We may, thus, highlight the following:

(1) In reality, matter is a continuum of substance in space.

(2) This substance has variable consistency from matter to void.

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Inertial & Gravitational Mass

THE WORLD OF ATOM by Boorse

Chapter 36: Einstein’s Legacy – Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

“He also published an analysis indicating the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is not a mere accident of nature, but the basis of a profound physical principle that leads to a new theory of gravity.”

NOTE: Inertial mass is a mass parameter giving the inertial resistance to acceleration of the body when responding to all types of force. Gravitational mass is determined by the strength of the gravitational force experienced by the body when in the gravitational field g.

Comment:

To me, inertial mass balances the intrinsic motion. Light has very large but finite velocity because it has an “inertial mass” restraining infinite motion. As inertial mass increases the intrinsic velocity decreases. A body of infinite inertial mass may be postulated to be at absolute rest. Different inertial masses mean different intrinsic velocities. Thus, relative velocities may be understood in terms of differentials of inertial mass.

From this point of view, when a body is accelerating in a gravitational field, it means that the inertial mass of the body is somehow reduced by that gravitational field. Since this reduction is extremely small, the “gravitational mass” appears to be the same as the “inertial mass”.

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The World of Atom (Part V)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

THE WORLD OF ATOM by Boorse

PART V – BEYOND THE ATOM

Chapter 21: Atoms and Electricity – Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867)
The volume of energy around point masses is like a field made up of “tubes of force”.

Chapter 22: Electromagnetic Theory – James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879)
The field is electromagnetic in nature containing alternate transformation between electric and magnetic fields.

Chapter 23: Cathode Rays – A “Fourth State of Matter” – William Crookes (1832 – 1919)
The electric current leaves a conductor into a vacuum as a laminar flow of “cathode rays”.

Chapter 24: A Remarkable Regularity in the Hydrogen Spectrum – Johann Jacob Balmer (1825 – 1898)
The wavelength of any line in the spectrum of hydrogen can be obtained by multiplying a certain numerical factor by a series of fractions.

Chapter 25: The Luminiferous Ether Receives a Mortal Blow – Albert A. Michelson (1852 – 1931), Edward W. Morley (1838 – 1923)
There is no detectable relative motion between Earth and the supposed luminiferous aether. This raised question about light being a disturbance in some medium.

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POSTULATE:
Light is electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic energy is a fluid-like substance rather than a disturbance in some postulated medium.

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The Space-Time

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Matter is rigid and discrete, as defined by its extents. The word “rigid” is used in the sense opposite to “flexible” meaning “firmly fixed or set”. And the word “discrete” is used in the sense opposite to “continuous” meaning “apart or detached from others; separate; distinct”. The dimensions of matter are depicted as rigid and discrete by Euclidian geometry. We can talk about the dimensions of matter in terms of units that are fixed and discrete, but we cannot do so for space that is empty of matter.

Space that is empty of matter, is not empty of energy. Energy flows like a fluid, and it can thicken up from a dilute state like a fluid; the only difference being that energy is not made up particles like atoms. The quanta of energy do not refer to a particle but to thickness (viscosity) of energy. As energy thickens up it increasingly becomes rigid and discrete like matter. Thus, there is a gradient of rigidity and discreteness. Space is defined by what it is filled with. “Empty” space is defined not by the rigidity and discreteness of matter (as we do currently), but by the flexibility and continuity of energy.

A location is considered fixed in space and discrete by Euclidian geometry; but this is true only for space filled by matter. When space is empty of matter, we cannot fix or pinpoint a location in it. A location in space is not discrete but continuous with the space around it. Mathematics considers a discrete point to be a primitive notion. This now comes under question. Rather continuous space should be a primitive notion.

A certain quantum of energy may be defined more correctly as a certain “viscosity” of energy. This “viscosity” of energy increases with frequency until it collapses into mass at the center of the atom (as its nucleus). We, may, therefore, say that, from the viewpoint of mathematics, a location in space shifts from continuity to discreteness on a gradient. This provides a new dimension to Calculus.

The new calculus will approach discreteness from continuity the way condensing energy would approach matter. The infinitesimals of this calculus are, therefore, shrinkable from the flexibility of continuity to the rigidity of discreteness. Currently, the infinitesimals of Calculus are assumed to be rigid like matter, regardless of how small they get. But as matter divides it does not stop at atom; it starts to become more “viscous” in the form of electrons, quantum particles and the electromagnetic field beyond.

We cannot use the rigid infinitesimals of Calculus for the electromagnetic fields, that is why we have a different mathematics for Quantum mechanics. If we can add the dimension of “viscosity” (or frequency) to the infinitesimals, we may extend the use of Calculus to Quantum Mechanics. Physics is struggling to get rid of conditioning due to matter. It cannot get rid of that conditioning unless mathematics gets rid of it first. We need mathematics that approaches discreteness from the direction of continuity.

We cannot use the dimensionless Euclidean point as primitive notion because it is not seen as expanding into a continuous space. But we can use continuous space as primitive notion because we can see it as shrinking to generate a dense point that approaches discreteness. It is this “viscosity” of infinitesimals that can be associated increasingly with discreteness.

As the “viscosity” of energy increases, rotational fields start to form within the electromagnetic fields. The first stable form of such rotational field is the electron. As these rotational fields grow, their center starts to collapse to form a hard nucleus due to high “viscosity”. The next stable form of this rotational field appears to be the hydrogen atom.

As we can see, the space contracts as energy condenses with increasing frequency (viscosity). The theory of special relativity talks about contraction of space at speeds approaching the speed of light. This conclusion is subjective because Einstein’s observer is not using the context of the whole universe as its reference.

Objectivity exists to the degree observer uses the whole universe as its reference. This means using all physical and mental senses. The moment one uses part of the universe as its reference one’s viewpoint descends into subjectivity. Thus, mathematics employed by Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity is subjective.

Objectivity is the consistency among inputs from all physical and mental senses. To the degree this consistency is missing, observation is incomplete and subjective.

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The World of Atom (Part IV)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

THE WORLD OF ATOM by Boorse

PART IV – NEW CONFIRMATION OF CHEMICAL ATOMIC THEORY

Chapter 19: Polyatomic Molecules – Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826 – 1910)
Elements combine as multiples of a certain quantity called their atomic weight. 

Chapter 20: The Periodic Table of the Elements – Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834 – 1907)
The elements, arranged according to the magnitude of their atomic weight, show a periodic change of properties.

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POSTULATE:
The atoms and molecules have somewhat of a cyclical quantum structure.

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