Category Archives: Physics Book

The Physics Book.

Substance and Relativity

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Space and time are not the primary concepts in science. Space appears as the external characteristic of size, and the internal characteristic of force. Time appears as the external characteristic of velocity, and the internal characteristic of duration. Therefore, space and time are the characteristics of some primary concept.

The primary concept of this universe is aether (substance).

NOTE: The 19th century concept of “stationary aether” was discredited, and correctly so. There is no stationary and uniform aether. But there is aether in the original sense of substance. Currently physics narrowly identifies the word “substance” with matter. Light is not matter, but, more correctly, light is a substance.

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Aether as Substance

From ancient times, aether has denoted the ‘substance that permeated the cosmos’, from which the stars and planets were made. Aether expresses itself as light and the stars that shine so brightly. As shown in the last chapter, aether may be presented as the following spectrum of substance.

  1. Black Hole material
  2. Nuclear matter
  3. Electronic particles
  4. Gamma radiation
  5. X-ray radiation
  6. Ultraviolet radiation
  7. Visible radiation
  8. Infrared radiation
  9. Terahertz radiation
  10. Microwave radiation
  11. Radio waves
  12. Gravity
  13. Space
  14. Void
  15. Emptiness

Emptiness is the reference point for all phenomena. Void is the reference point for the physical phenomena only. Anything that can be detected physically is substance with innate force. For example, light can be detected; therefore, light is a substance with innate force. Once there is force there is also momentum and energy, but those are secondary concepts.

The primary concept is the innate force of substance. Substance of minimum density appears as space. Substance of maximum density appears as matter.

Aether is correctly interpreted as SUBSTANCE that has the innate characteristic of FORCE. Substance is not limited to matter.

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The Scale of Substance

Minimum density represents the flimsiest of force fields. As density increases this force field gets stronger and appears as electromagnetic fluid. The density of this “fluid” increases with frequency until it forms the electronic “particles” inside the atom. The density of these “particles” increases very rapidly inside the atom to form the material nucleus. Parallel to increasing density is the increasing duration of substance.

The physical substance starts with space and ends in matter. This gives us a scale of substance.

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Einstein’s Relativity

Einstein’s theory of Relativity looks at this scale from the viewpoint of matter. It gives us a scale of velocity increasing from matter to light. From this viewpoint, the speed of the flimsiest of force fields shall be the highest reaching an infinite value for space.

Einstein’s theory, however, interprets space shrinking and duration increasing with increasing velocity. This means that density increases with increasing velocity. This contradicts the logical view given above. The theory of relativity also contradicts the fact that as the velocity increases, the size of the quantum particle increases also.

The interpretation of Einstein’s theory of relativity is quite opposite to the reality of this primary concept as the scale of substance.

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Einstein’s Mathematical Object

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Einstein replaced the classical concept of stationary aether of uniform density by a mathematical object that is neither stationary nor in motion, and which has no substance. If correct results are obtained from the mathematics of relativity, then Einstein’s mathematical object is likely equivalent to a fast moving substance of variable density.

The general notion of substance is anything that can be felt or detected because it has “innate force”. The substance may, therefore, be expressed as matter, the flowing electronic fluid, or the rapidly traveling light. Even the far reaching gravitational force may be classified as substance.

Einstein replaced the classical concept of stationary aether of uniform density by a mathematical object of no substance.

NOTE: The 19th century concept of “stationary aether” was discredited, and correctly so. There is no stationary and uniform aether. But there is aether in the original sense of substance. Currently physics narrowly identifies the word “substance” with matter. Light is not matter, but, more correctly, light is a substance.

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The Original Aether

The word aether denoted the ‘upper atmosphere’ and by extension the ‘substance that permeated the cosmos,’ from which the stars and planets were made. The word substance denoted the ‘essence’ of something substantial; and the word cosmos denoted ‘order’ pointing to the orderliness of creation. Aether, in this sense, is the substance of this universe. Aether then expresses itself as light and also as the stars that shine so brightly.

The original aether may be described by the following spectrum of substance:

  1. Black Hole material
  2. Nuclear matter
  3. Electronic particles
  4. Gamma radiation
  5. X-ray radiation
  6. Ultraviolet radiation
  7. Visible radiation
  8. Infrared radiation
  9. Terahertz radiation
  10. Microwave radiation
  11. Radio waves
  12. Gravity
  13. Space
  14. Void
  15. Emptiness

The material objects are described in terms of their mass. The electromagnetic substance is described in terms of its frequency. Matter at the upper end is made up of very high frequencies. Space at the lower end denotes very low frequency. As frequency approaches zero we approach the void.

The physical substance thins out continually from Black hole to Emptiness.

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Substance and Geometry

Accompanying the idea of substance is the mathematical abstraction of geometry. Space represents the boundaries of matter. Void represents the boundaries of all substance.

The centers of mass of material bodies are represented by geometrical points. The centers “touch” each other through their intervening force, represented by geometrical distances.

The geometric distances are filled with forces and substances of variable density. The variable density is represented by interplay of durations, or motion.

The fourth dimension is not time but “duration” of substance, which may be represented objectively by mass density (or force density).

Each point in a space-duration reference frame has three spatial dimensions and a dimension of duration represented by density, frequency or inverse of velocity. This tells us that distances shall be much shorter if all densities are uniform and equal to the density of matter.

The space-duration reference frame is a more objective representation of the mathematically subjective space-time reference frame of Einstein.

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The Classical Assumption

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Since ancient times, aether has been theorized as a substance that permeates the cosmos. Aether did not play any part in Newton’s corpuscular theory of light. But when light was discovered to have wave properties, physicist started to consider light as a disturbance that traveled through aether. This meant that light was pure motion, or “pure energy”. This was contrary to Newton’s corpuscular theory that treated light as rapidly moving particles (substance in motion).

The classical assumption was that light was a wave motion (pure energy) traveling in aether.

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Faraday

Faraday saw that atomic particles touched each other through force that existed between them. The lines of force became a powerful reality to him in the electrical and magnetic phenomena. He saw force as an extension of matter. Matter was concentrated lines of force. This was consistent with Newton’s view that equated matter with an “innate force”. To Faraday, force became a much finer form of substance.

In his paper on Thoughts on Ray Vibrations (1846), Faraday says,

“The view which I am so bold to put forth considers, therefore, radiation as a kind of species of vibration in the lines of force which are known to connect particles and also masses of matter together. It endeavors to dismiss the aether, but not the vibration.”

According to Faraday light was a vibration in the lines of force that connected particles of matter. Force was the substance of light.

Thus Faraday returned to Newton’s idea of light as “substance in motion”.

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Maxwell

Maxwell focused on the mathematical description of the electromagnetic force outlined by Faraday. He saw electromagnetism as a study in states of stress and strain. In seeking consistency with Newtonian dynamics, Maxwell basically treated electrical lines of potential as having uniform density same as material particles. He used the concept of aether, which is uniform throughout space.

Maxwell did not fully implement Faraday’s conception of lines of force. These lines, through their varying thickness, represented varying density of “force substance”. He, therefore, missed the phenomenon of quantization discovered later by Einstein.

Thus, Maxwell adhered to wave theory and popularized the concept of pure energy. According to this theory, the energy density of light was proportional to the square of the amplitude. Maxwell’s equations do not describe the motion of charged particles but the effect that passes through them at the speed of light.

In Maxwell’s model, light remained a wave motion (pure energy) traveling in aether.

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Einstein

In his 1905 paper on light quanta, Einstein set up a model of blackbody radiation similar to the model in kinetic theory of gases. He then reached the following conclusion.

“We thus reach the conclusion: the higher the energy density and the longer the wavelengths of radiation, the more usable is the theoretical basis used by us; for short wavelengths and low radiation densities, however, the basis fails completely”.

Einstein showed that Maxwell’s classical assumption is valid at longer wavelengths (low frequencies). As frequency increases the energy distribution becomes more discontinuous in space like particles. Einstein thus showed that Planck’s postulate of energy quanta was more than just a mathematical device.

But Einstein also assumed radiation to be vibrations in aether. As variable frequency required a medium of variable density, aether of constant density could not serve. Einstein, therefore, dropped the idea of aether, and decided that light was “vibrations in mathematical space”.

Einstein kept the classical concept that light is “pure energy”, except he replaced Maxwell’s constant aether by a variable mathematical space.

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Quantum Mechanics

Einstein concludes in his 1905 paper:

“According to the assumption considered here, when a light ray starting from a point is propagated, the energy is not continuously distributed over an ever increasing volume, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localised in space, which move without being divided and which can be absorbed or emitted only as a whole”.

This is the view of light quanta as “pure energy” in a mathematical space of variable density. Contrast this with light as a substance of variable density moving in real space. The latter is the proposal of Faraday of vibrating lines of force of variable thickness in real space.

Like Maxwell, Einstein also couldn’t see light to be made up of a “force field” that had variable density in real space (see the chapter The Quantum Particle). This created confusion between real and mathematical space, and placed quantum mechanics on a firm mathematical footing. 

Both classical and quantum mechanics view light as “pure energy” that requires either aether or mathematical “substance” for its existence.

The actual breakdown of classical mechanics occurred when the idea of quantum confirmed light to be a “substance in motion” and not a “motion in hypothetical aether”.

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The Logic of Field

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As shown in the chapter on The Logic of Substance, both matter and light are substance, which means they have mass. The range of mass density of matter is from 1.93 x 104 kg/m3 for Gold to 9.0 x 10-2 kg/mfor Hydrogen (at Standard Temperature and Pressure). Compared to this range, the mass density of light is so small that it is replaced by an equivalent “energy” value. The unfortunate result of this has been that light is no longer looked upon as a substance, but as energy.

When it comes to light and other non-atomic particles, mass density may be referred to as mass concentration.

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Mass Concentration

Much of the differences in mass concentration, in the case of matter, come from differences in the concentration of atoms. Atoms are highly concentrated in solids and liquids, but not so concentrated in gases. Atoms themselves seem to have a much narrower range of mass concentrations.

When we look at the mass concentration within atoms, it is an average of the mass concentrations of the nucleus and surrounding electrons. The nucleus is made up of a discrete number of protons and neutrons, that have about the same mass concentration. We may say that that the mass concentration of all nuclei is just about constant. The nucleus occupies about 0.01% of the atomic volume. Electrons fill rest of the space of the atom around the nucleus. The masses of electron and proton are in the ratio 1:1840. So the mass concentration of the nucleus is very high—much higher than the mass concentration of matter.

The mass concentration of an atom is practically constant. The mass concentration of matter reduces as space between the atoms increases.

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The Atom

The atom divides sharply into nuclear and electronic regions. The mass concentration declines suddenly from the nuclear to electronic region in the ratio 1840 to 1. The sharp gradient at the interface of the two regions is seen as CHARGE. More on this later.

The nuclear region is populated by “material particles” that have center of mass. The property of center of mass makes one particle distinct from another. This property underlies the discreteness of material particles.

When the center of mass is not there as in the fast moving electronic region, the “particles” cannot be perceived as discrete. The electrons, therefore, appear to form a fluid ring around the nucleus, much like the ring of the Saturn. The old “solar system” model of the atom has long been discredited.

The atom is like a point nucleus encircled by a large Saturnian ring made of rapidly moving electronic fluid.

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The Field Concept

The large Saturnian ring of electronic fluid around the nucleus gives us the first realistic concept of the field. This field is not abstract. It is substantial with appreciable mass concentration. There are no centers of mass in field particles. So the field is a continuum of substance in motion, much like a flowing fluid.

The electronic field has substance of very low mass concentration compared to the nucleus. The substance of the nucleus is considered as matter, but not the substance of electronic field. The substance of electronic field is very thin, almost ephemeral, flowing around the nucleus.

The fundamental property of a field is that it is a fast moving non-atomic fluid substance.

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Electron and Photon Fields

Electrons and photons are not excitations jumping out of their respective fields. They are rapidly moving fields of substance. Just like there is no stationary aether, there is no stationary field. The motion of field arises from its low mass concentration as explained later.

Light is the “photon field”. Its mass concentration is still less than that of electron field. Therefore, its velocity is much greater. Light is classified as an electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Its spread in space is much wider than that of electronic field.

The wavelengths of light are much larger than that of electron field. The impact of light is much lesser than that of electron field.

The rapid flow of field gives it wave-like properties. The mass concentration of field gives it quantum (particle-like) properties.

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The Gravitational Field

As the field spreads wider its becomes thinner and it substance is recognized only because of its impact or force. The gravitational field is spread out over the whole universe. Its substance is so thinned out that we may conceive it simply as force. Thus, gravity may be thought of as a very rapidly flowing force.

The speed and wavelengths of the gravitational field are yet to be determined, but they are expected to be much greater than those of light. This logical view is very different from what is generally believed in quantum physics.

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The Logic of Substance

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As shown in the paper, The Logic of Reality, conflating energy with substance has caused much confusion about reality. The starting point of reality has always been substance. Of course, matter is substance, but light is no less a substance. It impacts our senses the same way that matter does.

This is, however, contrary to the current scientific view, which is based on quantum reality. The quantum reality assumes that light has no substance (mass).

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Substantiality and Mass

As explained in Void and Space, we contrast the physical phenomena from the background void by its impact on our senses. The essence of that impact is FORCE. That force is also felt when we try to push something. By the magnitude of that force we know how substantial a physical phenomenon is.

Newton characterized this substantiality as the innate force of MATTER. He named it INERTIA. Inertia appears as resistance when external force is applied to a material object. The object moves under the influence of the applied force while resisting it. This inertial resistance is there even when there is no friction.  Try pushing a heavy iron ball that is suspended from the ceiling.

Under the influence of externally applied force the motion of the object increases. To increase the rate of motion the applied force must be increased proportionally. Increase in force is also necessary to compensate for increase in substantiality of the object. This substantiality is measured as MASS. The concepts of mass and inertia are crucial to the understanding of matter.

Matter is understood in terms of mass (substantiality) and inertia (internal resistance).

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Substantiality of Light

Matter is the starting concept in physics because of its substantiality. That is why it is called substance. A substance is recognized because of its impact on our senses. Matter has impact on our senses in terms of inertia. The substantiality of matter is measured in terms of mass.

Light also has impact on our senses, therefore, it is substantial. Newton did recognize light as a substance by advancing a corpuscular theory, but that got overridden by a wave theory, which looked at light as a disturbance in a hypothetical medium called aether. This characterized light as “energy”. Thus, light was defined as the energy of a substance called aether.

When Einstein discovered light quanta, he essentially restored the substantial nature of light. There was no esoteric medium called aether. Light was an ephemeral substance that moved like a wave. But Einstein retained the idea of light quanta as a “packet of energy” based on the wave theory. This implied that “energy” was a kind of substance. This was a departure from Newtonian idea of energy, which required the notion of substance (or mass) as a prerequisite.

The substantiality of light is defined in terms of energy and not mass.

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Mass and Energy

Currently, Science does not recognize light as a substance, but considers it to be “pure energy”. As conceived originally, energy relates to motion, or tension, of substance (mass). It is inconsistent to conceive of “pure motion, tension or energy”, without substance (mass).

Einstein should have conceived of light is an extremely fast moving substance. Just because one can measure the energy of light, but not mass, does not mean that light has no mass.

Einstein’s assumption that light has no mass is a valid approximation only because the mass of light is infinitesimal compared to the mass of matter. This can be seen from calculating the mass of light by Einstein’s famous equation, E = mc2.

Disregard of the logic of substance (mass) has created confusion between the concepts of mass and energy at quantum levels. This brings confusion to the very concept of substantiality.

By stating that light is energy with no mass, Einstein characterized energy as substance (mass). This is confusing to say the least.

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