Category Archives: Physics Book

The Physics Book.

The Conservation of Force

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Conservation of Force is a non-mathematical principal that Faraday developed and used to come up with new areas to investigate. See Faraday: On the Conservation of Force . It was this principal that helped him realize that there is no empty space between the atoms. Any space is filled with force. This force terminates at atoms, where it gets very concentrated. Faraday used this realization to explain how the action of gravity is communicated across large distances such as, from the sun to its planets. See Faraday: Thoughts on Ray Vibrations.

Faraday’s concept of force was much richer than the Newton’s mathematical concept of Force. Faraday had great difficulty in communicating this idea to other scientists. After all Faraday was an experimentalist and had never attended a university. He did not have credibility as a theorist.


Faraday’s Force

In his article Electrical Conduction & Nature of Matter of January 25, 1844, Faraday writes,

“We recognize the substance by its properties. The properties of the substance cannot be separated from the substance… Hence matter will be continuous throughout, and in considering a mass of it we have not to suppose a distinction between its atoms and any intervening space. The powers around the centres give these centres the properties of atoms of matter; and these powers again, when many centres by their conjoint forces are grouped into a mass, give to every part of that mass the properties of matter. In such a view all the contradiction resulting from the consideration of electric insulation and conduction disappears.”

To Faraday, mass is represented by concentrated force, and atoms are the centers of forces. The shape of an atom is defined by the forces that extend from it. The forces thin out as they expand in all directions and fill the space. There is no “empty space.” Such forces terminate at other atoms. Therefore, atoms are always in contact with each other through their forces. There is no real distinction between atoms and the space between them. Thus, atom is the concentrated force, and space is the thinned out force. The concentrated force is mass, and the thinned out force is radiation. The force is the substance and its properties.

Newton also saw inherent force in matter, which he called inertia. But, Faraday’s concept of force is much richer and it introduces the idea of continuum of substance. To Faraday, substance is substantial because of this force, which is perceived as sensation. This sensation is then interpreted as substance and its properties.

In Faraday’s model, substance, is present everywhere as force. Molecules are formed by these forces mutually penetrating each other. Such molecules have identity of their own. Void is an absence of all substance or force. Void is an abstraction because one cannot be aware of it. The forces involved in heat, electricity, magnetism, chemical action and relative motion represent substance. So does gravity.

The law of conservation in physics accounts for matter, energy and momentum in a relative sense only. Faraday’s principle of Conversion of Force, however, accounts for the inherent consistency and motion of all substance.


Inherent Consistency and Motion 

Matter and Energy are substantial because they can be sensed in varying degrees. They are part of the spectrum of substance where matter appears at the upper end and light at the lower end. The substance thins out throughout the spectrum from matter to light.

Substance has inherent consistency and motion. The inherent consistency appears as ‘mass’ in matter; and as ‘frequency’ in energy. The inherent motion appears as the motion of the planets; and as the ‘speed of light’ universally.

In the context of the law of conservation of Physics, ‘energy’ means heat, electricity, magnetism, chemical action and relative motion. It has the connotation of ‘action.’ But when Einstein talks about the equivalence of mass and energy, ‘energy’ has the connotation of ‘substance.’ In an atomic explosion, the matter thins out into ‘energy’. 

We identify the infra-red radiation as ‘heat energy’ because it is sensed as heat. Thus, the ‘substance’ of lower part of the spectrum is identified by the ‘action’ it causes in matter at the upper part of the spectrum. We observe that the ‘substance’ becomes relatively more dynamic as it thins out down the spectrum. Light is many orders of magnitude more dynamic than matter. Electron is much more dynamic than the proton. Atoms display Brownian motion. This dynamic characteristic is inherent. We may call it inherent motion. We observe that the inherent motion increases as the consistency of substance decreases.

Physics limits the concept of mass and inertia to matter only. Mass and inertia express themselves as momentum. Light is discovered to possess momentum, but it is considered to have neither mass nor inertia. So we use the concept of consistency common to all substance. Consistency in matter has the properties of mass and inertia.

Inertia of an object keeps its acceleration in check. In other words, inertia keeps the object moving at a constant velocity. But this velocity cannot be perceived when there are no other objects around. We may say that the inertia is responsible for the inherent motion. In general, the inherent consistency and motion of substance are related. As consistency decreases with substance thinning out, the inherent motion increases.

The law of conservation in Physics does not seem to account for the inherent motion and consistency at the lower part of the spectrum. It ignores the “substance” that does not have mass. Light is considered to have no mass, and therefore, it has no substance. The momentum of light is taken into account only in a relative sense. The consistency of light and inherent motion are ignored otherwise. 

Faraday’s Conservation of Force accounts for the inherent consistency and motion of the massless substance too as clarified above.


Dark Matter and Energy

Physics has no concepts that account for inherent motion or consistency of anything other than matter. It is possible that,

Dark Matter is the consistency of the massless substance; and Dark Energy is the inherent motion of that massless substance.


Thinning Out of Matter

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As covered earlier, matter does not end abruptly at some boundary beyond which lies the void. Instead, matter “thins out” into the void. Thus, there is a spectrum of substance between matter and void. At one end of this spectrum we have matter; and, at the other end we have light (electromagnetic radiation) thinning out into the void. 

Classically, matter thins out as atoms move away from each other. But how does matter thin out at the atomic level?


Proton to Electron

At the core of the atom, we have the nucleus; and at the core of the nucleus we have the neutron. The neutron thins out about 0.1 % to the surface of the nucleus, where we have the proton. The first significant thinning occurs from proton to electron at the boundary of the nucleus. The thinning occurs by a factor of 1836 within is very short distance. There is no gap, only a sharp and continuous thinning of substance from proton to electron.

Maybe this sharp gradient of substance is what we call ‘charge.’

The proton is rigid with a fixed center of mass. it thins out into a fluid electron that does not have distinct center of mass. For this reason, the electron does not have a location as a particle. The “location” of electron can only be estimated by a probability function. For the same reason, the electron cannot be distinguished clearly from another electron around the nucleus. Therefore, it does not have a well-defined boundary as a particle. Electron is essentially a fluid-like continuum that has thick consistency; and, this consistency fluctuates around the nucleus. This gives the illusion of electron moving as a particle. The electron does have sub-atomic reactions that are obviously discrete.

The mathematical treatment of discrete reactions makes sub-atomic particles appear as if they are “discrete.” 

There is an exchange of substance back and forth between proton and electron, but it is balanced, and this thinning pattern exists as part of the structure of the atom.


Electron to Electromagnetic Radiation

The next significant thinning occurs from the electrons to electromagnetic radiation at the surface of the atom. This is like a fluid substance with thick consistency interfacing with a fluid substance of much thinner consistency.

During this thinning out, the mass reduces and duration of any particular configuration reduces too; and the space expands. The center of mass property goes away, which means that the substance cannot be located at a point location. The discreteness in terms of sub-atomic interactions also disappears. 

Again, there is exchange of substance back and forth between electron and the electromagnetic radiation, but it is balanced, and this thinning pattern forms the surface of the atom.


Particle-Wave Duality

Particle properties involve having momentum along with a discrete existence with a fixed center of mass. Fixed center of mass means that the relative distribution of substance is fixed within definite boundaries. When the boundaries and the distribution is changing rapidly, the center of mass will also be changing rapidly and can be determined only as a probability function. As the particle starts transitioning to wave, the center of mass starts to lose its fixed relationship to the rest of the particle, and becomes diffused. When the center of mass disappears, the particle also loses its discrete existence. The last property to disappear is the momentum, which means there is no consistency and no substance.

The particle-wave duality, essentially, points to a fluid state of substance that has momentum because of its consistency, but without a rigid structure at sub-atomic levels.

The consistency is inherent to the substance. It disappears only when the substance disappears.


Substance and Force

The force in nuclear matter is pretty much concentrated at a location. The force as charge is not so concentrated as in the nucleus, but it can move around, especially when there is a conductor. This charge also flow out in vacuum as cathode rays and exerts its force. The flow of this force can be manipulated by magnetic fields.

Basically, atoms are centers from which substance spreads out into space much like Faraday’s force and connects to other atoms. See A speculation touching Electric Conduction and the Nature of Matter.

There seems to be a relationship between substance and force that needs to be examined closely.


Matter, Energy, Space and Time

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Matter, energy, space and time are the most basic concepts that define the ‘physical’ aspect of the universe. Do they have  a common basis?


Matter and Energy

The spectrum of substance has matter is at one end, and light is at the other. Mass is the key characteristic of matter, whereas, energy is the key characteristic of light. Einstein’s equation E = mc^2 shows that energy and mass are equivalent. We may, therefore, say that matter and energy are different forms of the reality we identify as ‘substance.’ 

Physicists, however, do not recognize the word ‘substance,’ and do not use it for matter or energy. We may technically define ’substance’ as,

SUBSTANCE is anything that is substantial enough to be sensed. The primary forms of substance are matter and energy.

Matter is much more substantial than light (energy) because the momentum associated with matter is much greater than the momentum of light. This momentum comes from the ‘consistency’ of substance. This consistency decreases from the mass of matter to the energy of light. We may technically define ‘consistency’ as,

CONSISTENCY is a measure of substantiality of substance. Matter has the highest consistency, light has the least.

The substance has to be the fundamental concept of Physics, because the whole subject of Physics derives from how we sense things.  


Matter and Space

Modern physics treats space as an abstract, mathematical entity. But it is not difficult to understand the space filled with matter. In that sense space defines the extents of matter. “Empty space” is empty of solid matter only. It is not necessarily empty of the whole spectrum of substance. The best vacuum is still not empty of light and electromagnetic radiation.

When we talk about the absence of all substance, we are talking about a void. It is difficult to visualize a void, because in a void there is nothing to be aware of. A void is, therefore, an abstraction. We are aware of empty space; therefore, empty space is filled with substance other than visible matter.

Space that is filled with solid matter, defines the extents of that matter. Space that is filled with energy may define the extents of that energy. Current physics treats space as a fundamental concept. But space seems to depend on the concept of substance. We may technically define ‘space’ as,

Space is the extent of substance. Space does not exist in the absence of substance.

The nature of space varies with the consistency of substance it contains. This helps us visualize “empty” space expanding, contracting, curving and twisting just as the mathematics of Einstein predicts.


Matter and Time

When we measure time, we measure the duration of something. The duration is measured against the infinite duration of the universe. The duration of the universe is infinite because substance (matter and energy) can neither be created nor destroyed according to the principle of conservation. 

Matter is much more compact, and it endures much longer than light. Both the extents and duration of substance are intimately related with its consistency. We know of extent as ‘space’, and duration as ’time’.

As the consistency of the substance changes over its spectrum, so do its extent (space) and duration (time). 

The most fundamental attribute of substance is its consistency, which gives it a form. The substance “thins out” from solid, impenetrable neutrons to protons to electrons to radiation. The change in consistency from neutron to proton is only 0.1%. This indicates that neutrons lie at the core of the nucleus, whereas protons at the surface. The protons then ‘interface’ with electrons through charge. From proton to electron the consistency decreases sharply by 183600%. Subsequently, from electrons to electromagnetic radiation it decreases even farther. As consistency decreases, the duration also decreases, while space increases.

We can visualize time decreasing from nucleus to electrons to radiation tremendously, while space is increasing tremendously. (Visualize time as the duration, and space as the extent.)

Matter appears at the upper end of the spectrum of substance. Matter of highest consistency shall lie at the core of the nucleus at the center of an atom, and at the core of the black hole at the center of the galaxy. It will act as the stable point for the atom and the galaxy because it has the highest duration.

Light appears at the lower end of the spectrum of substance. Light of lowest consistency shall form the periphery of the atom, galaxy or the universe. This radiation shall have infinitesimal duration. Beyond this periphery would be the void.

This means that the solid, impenetrable form of nuclear matter defines stable locations in space. The flimsiest, ephemeral form of electromagnetic radiation defines the rapidly expanding space with no stable locations. We may technically define ‘time’ as,

Time is the duration of substance that manifests as inherent motion in space, which it fills. 

Time manifests as inherent motion of substance that varies with its consistency. To Einstein, this was dilation of time.


Space and Time

We find space and time not to be independent of substance. They are defined by the consistency of substance. Space and time are related to each other through the consistency of the substance. Therefore, they not independent of each other.

The fundamental concept is neither space nor time. The fundamental concept is the consistency (or substantiality) of substance. 

The inherent motion of substance derives from its own space and time. Therefore, the relative motion arises from the relativity of space, time and consistency of substance. The space, time and consistency of material objects is nearly constant. Therefore, the relative motion among them is relatively small.

This analysis relates space and time to consistency of the substance. Further analysis of consistency (or substantiality) of substance may lead to a non-mathematical clarification of gravitation.


Matter-Void Boundary

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The subject of physics starts with the consideration of material objects separated by void. This is so all the way down to the consideration of atoms. We, therefore, should examine the concept of “matter separated by void” closely for assumptions. When we do this, the following question arises,

Does matter end abruptly at its boundary and the void begins?


Newtonian Mechanics

In Classical Physics, the basic substance is matter. No matter how finely you grind it, it is still matter. Gases consist of extremely fine particles of matter called “atoms.” The atoms are very small, solid spheres that are separated by the void. So, there is a boundary at which matter apparently ends abruptly and the void begins.

But this cannot be so neatly categorized in the case of electricity, light and similar radiation. Investigation into this anomaly leads us to Quantum Mechanics.


Quantum Mechanics

The material nucleus of an atom is surrounded by a layer of electrical substance that behaves like particle as well as wave. Together, the nucleus and the surrounding layer of electrical substance form the atom. The atom exists in an environment of electromagnetic radiation. This environment behaves mostly like waves. The void is supposed to lie beyond this environment of electromagnetic radiation. 

This picture provides us with a gradient of substance from matter to void. Matter is the substance at one end of the spectrum that we are most familiar with. At the other end of the spectrum is light, which is no less a form of substance. In between are quantum particles and electromagnetic radiation. Beyond this spectrum of substance we postulate a void, which denotes absence of substance. 

Matter, therefore, does not end abruptly at some boundary; instead, it “thins out” into the void. We have a diffused boundary between matter and void.


Paradigm Shift

We, therefore, find the Newtonian assumption of a binary matter-void paradigm to be incorrect. We discover that there is a spectrum of substance. Matter is simply a condensed form of substance at one end of this spectrum. At the other end Is an uncondensed form, which we know as light. In between we have the spectrum of “quantum particles” and “electromagnetic radiation.”

Thus, the survey of Physics in Part I shows that we have a gradient of substance from matter to void. This consideration of a spectrum of substance is a paradigm shift in thinking in Physics.


Physics, Anomalies and Assumptions

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As observed in the preface, the fundamental theories in the subject of Physics cannot be reconciled with each other. This is an anomaly.


Anomalies & Assumptions

An anomaly is any violation of the integrity of reality, such as, discontinuity (missing data), inconsistency (contradictory data), or disharmony (arbitrary data). An anomaly flags the presence of a hidden assumption. When the assumption is discovered it explains the anomaly, and a resolution occurs.

The above anomaly in Physics indicates that there is at least one hidden assumption in physics at the fundamental level. 


Physics and Philosophy

Philosophy defines “subjective” as “relating to or of the nature of an object as it is known in the mind as distinct from a thing in itself.” It is true that what is out there (a thing in itself) is sensed by our sensory organs. These sensations are then broken down into perceptual elements. The perceptual elements are assimilated into a mental matrix. The state of assimilation of the mental matrix provides us with the perception and knowledge of the things out there. The finer are the perceptual elements that are assimilated, the closer is the approximation in our mind of “the thing in itself.”

We improve this approximation of the “the thing in itself” by refining the perceptual elements and assimilating them in the mental matrix. This is accomplished through the discovery and resolution of anomalies.

Physics takes pride in being objective. The objective reality is that which has been tested and verified and cannot be argued with. It is the same for all people because all known anomalies have been resolved.  Therefore, the resolution of anomalies, in general, leads one from subjectivity towards objectivity.

When we say that physics is objective, we mean that physics is focused on obtaining continuity, consistency, and harmony among all its observations, interpretations and conclusions by discovering and resolving anomalies.