Category Archives: Physics Book

The Physics Book.

Matter, Energy, Space and Time

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Matter, energy, space and time are the most basic concepts that define the ‘physical’ aspect of the universe. Do they have  a common basis?

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Matter and Energy

The spectrum of substance has matter is at one end, and light is at the other. Mass is the key characteristic of matter, whereas, energy is the key characteristic of light. Einstein’s equation E = mc^2 shows that energy and mass are equivalent. We may, therefore, say that matter and energy are different forms of the reality we identify as ‘substance.’ 

Physicists, however, do not recognize the word ‘substance,’ and do not use it for matter or energy. We may technically define ’substance’ as,

SUBSTANCE is anything that is substantial enough to be sensed. The primary forms of substance are matter and energy.

Matter is much more substantial than light (energy) because the momentum associated with matter is much greater than the momentum of light. This momentum comes from the ‘consistency’ of substance. This consistency decreases from the mass of matter to the energy of light. We may technically define ‘consistency’ as,

CONSISTENCY is a measure of substantiality of substance. Matter has the highest consistency, light has the least.

The substance has to be the fundamental concept of Physics, because the whole subject of Physics derives from how we sense things.  

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Matter and Space

Modern physics treats space as an abstract, mathematical entity. But it is not difficult to understand the space filled with matter. In that sense space defines the extents of matter. “Empty space” is empty of solid matter only. It is not necessarily empty of the whole spectrum of substance. The best vacuum is still not empty of light and electromagnetic radiation.

When we talk about the absence of all substance, we are talking about a void. It is difficult to visualize a void, because in a void there is nothing to be aware of. A void is, therefore, an abstraction. We are aware of empty space; therefore, empty space is filled with substance other than visible matter.

Space that is filled with solid matter, defines the extents of that matter. Space that is filled with energy may define the extents of that energy. Current physics treats space as a fundamental concept. But space seems to depend on the concept of substance. We may technically define ‘space’ as,

Space is the extent of substance. Space does not exist in the absence of substance.

The nature of space varies with the consistency of substance it contains. This helps us visualize “empty” space expanding, contracting, curving and twisting just as the mathematics of Einstein predicts.

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Matter and Time

When we measure time, we measure the duration of something. The duration is measured against the infinite duration of the universe. The duration of the universe is infinite because substance (matter and energy) can neither be created nor destroyed according to the principle of conservation. 

Matter is much more compact, and it endures much longer than light. Both the extents and duration of substance are intimately related with its consistency. We know of extent as ‘space’, and duration as ’time’.

As the consistency of the substance changes over its spectrum, so do its extent (space) and duration (time). 

The most fundamental attribute of substance is its consistency, which gives it a form. The substance “thins out” from solid, impenetrable neutrons to protons to electrons to radiation. The change in consistency from neutron to proton is only 0.1%. This indicates that neutrons lie at the core of the nucleus, whereas protons at the surface. The protons then ‘interface’ with electrons through charge. From proton to electron the consistency decreases sharply by 183600%. Subsequently, from electrons to electromagnetic radiation it decreases even farther. As consistency decreases, the duration also decreases, while space increases.

We can visualize time decreasing from nucleus to electrons to radiation tremendously, while space is increasing tremendously. (Visualize time as the duration, and space as the extent.)

Matter appears at the upper end of the spectrum of substance. Matter of highest consistency shall lie at the core of the nucleus at the center of an atom, and at the core of the black hole at the center of the galaxy. It will act as the stable point for the atom and the galaxy because it has the highest duration.

Light appears at the lower end of the spectrum of substance. Light of lowest consistency shall form the periphery of the atom, galaxy or the universe. This radiation shall have infinitesimal duration. Beyond this periphery would be the void.

This means that the solid, impenetrable form of nuclear matter defines stable locations in space. The flimsiest, ephemeral form of electromagnetic radiation defines the rapidly expanding space with no stable locations. We may technically define ‘time’ as,

Time is the duration of substance that manifests as inherent motion in space, which it fills. 

Time manifests as inherent motion of substance that varies with its consistency. To Einstein, this was dilation of time.

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Space and Time

We find space and time not to be independent of substance. They are defined by the consistency of substance. Space and time are related to each other through the consistency of the substance. Therefore, they not independent of each other.

The fundamental concept is neither space nor time. The fundamental concept is the consistency (or substantiality) of substance. 

The inherent motion of substance derives from its own space and time. Therefore, the relative motion arises from the relativity of space, time and consistency of substance. The space, time and consistency of material objects is nearly constant. Therefore, the relative motion among them is relatively small.

This analysis relates space and time to consistency of the substance. Further analysis of consistency (or substantiality) of substance may lead to a non-mathematical clarification of gravitation.

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Matter-Void Boundary

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The subject of physics starts with the consideration of material objects separated by void. This is so all the way down to the consideration of atoms. We, therefore, should examine the concept of “matter separated by void” closely for assumptions. When we do this, the following question arises,

Does matter end abruptly at its boundary and the void begins?

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Newtonian Mechanics

In Classical Physics, the basic substance is matter. No matter how finely you grind it, it is still matter. Gases consist of extremely fine particles of matter called “atoms.” The atoms are very small, solid spheres that are separated by the void. So, there is a boundary at which matter apparently ends abruptly and the void begins.

But this cannot be so neatly categorized in the case of electricity, light and similar radiation. Investigation into this anomaly leads us to Quantum Mechanics.

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Quantum Mechanics

The material nucleus of an atom is surrounded by a layer of electrical substance that behaves like particle as well as wave. Together, the nucleus and the surrounding layer of electrical substance form the atom. The atom exists in an environment of electromagnetic radiation. This environment behaves mostly like waves. The void is supposed to lie beyond this environment of electromagnetic radiation. 

This picture provides us with a gradient of substance from matter to void. Matter is the substance at one end of the spectrum that we are most familiar with. At the other end of the spectrum is light, which is no less a form of substance. In between are quantum particles and electromagnetic radiation. Beyond this spectrum of substance we postulate a void, which denotes absence of substance. 

Matter, therefore, does not end abruptly at some boundary; instead, it “thins out” into the void. We have a diffused boundary between matter and void.

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Paradigm Shift

We, therefore, find the Newtonian assumption of a binary matter-void paradigm to be incorrect. We discover that there is a spectrum of substance. Matter is simply a condensed form of substance at one end of this spectrum. At the other end Is an uncondensed form, which we know as light. In between we have the spectrum of “quantum particles” and “electromagnetic radiation.”

Thus, the survey of Physics in Part I shows that we have a gradient of substance from matter to void. This consideration of a spectrum of substance is a paradigm shift in thinking in Physics.

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Physics, Anomalies and Assumptions

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As observed in the preface, the fundamental theories in the subject of Physics cannot be reconciled with each other. This is an anomaly.

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Anomalies & Assumptions

An anomaly is any violation of the integrity of reality, such as, discontinuity (missing data), inconsistency (contradictory data), or disharmony (arbitrary data). An anomaly flags the presence of a hidden assumption. When the assumption is discovered it explains the anomaly, and a resolution occurs.

The above anomaly in Physics indicates that there is at least one hidden assumption in physics at the fundamental level. 

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Physics and Philosophy

Philosophy defines “subjective” as “relating to or of the nature of an object as it is known in the mind as distinct from a thing in itself.” It is true that what is out there (a thing in itself) is sensed by our sensory organs. These sensations are then broken down into perceptual elements to be assimilated into a mental matrix. The state of assimilation of the mental matrix provides us with the perception and knowledge of the things out there. The finer are the perceptual elements the closer is the approximation in our mind of “the thing in itself” .

We improve the approximation in our mind of the “the thing in itself” by refining the perceptual elements assimilating them in the mental matrix. This is accomplished through the discovery and resolution of anomalies.

Physics takes pride in being objective. The objective reality is that which has been tested and verified and cannot be argued with. It is the same for all people because all known anomalies have been resolved.  Therefore, the resolution of anomalies, in general, leads one from subjectivity towards objectivity.

When we say that physics is objective, we mean that physics is focused on obtaining continuity, consistency, and harmony among all its observations, interpretations and conclusions by discovering and resolving anomalies.

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The World of Atom (Part XVI)

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

PART XV –NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND NUCLEAR ENERGY

THE WORLD OF ATOM by Boorse

Chapter 94: Parity and Its Ill Fortune – C. N. Yang (b. 1922) and T. D. Lee (b. 1926)

Law of Parity Conservation. In 1953 it was found that theta and tau mesons had identical masses and lifetimes, but they decay in different schemes with different parities. This led to the assumption that they were two different K-mesons, even though they were alike in all other aspects. Lee and Yang, on examining this situation, discovered that the principle of conservation of parity has never been experimentally verified for weak interactions. Lee and Yang proposed that the conservation of parity be discarded in any reaction involving neutrinos and in weak interactions in general. This was then verified experimentally. They won the 1957 Nobel Prize.

Chapter 95: Nuclei and Nucleons – R. Hofstadter (1915 – 1990) 

Structure of Nuclei and Nucleons. Hofstadter received Nobel Prize in 1961 for detailed investigation into the structure of matter. He extended the technique of previous electron-scattering studies to higher energies and discovered that nucleons consist of charged mesonic clouds. In the proton, these clouds appeared to add to the effect of their charges; in the neutron the clouds seem to cancel one another. Thus, nucleons are complex bodies of constituent mesons.

Chapter 96: Elementary Particles – H. A. Boorse (1904 – 2003) and L. Motz (1909 – 2004)

MAIN POINTS

  1. Symmetry is a property of a physical system that is unaffected by certain mathematical transformations.
  2. A particular type of symmetry in nature implies the existence of a conservation law.
  3. In nature, symmetries are everywhere forming an important part of the laws.
  4. The concept of invariance introduced by Einstein is the most important example of symmetry.
  5. Invariance is the property of remaining unchanged regardless of changes in the conditions of measurement. 
  6. Invariance is related to conservation laws; for example, conservation of energy is related to invariance over time.
  7. The existence of quantum numbers is, in a sense, a consequence of the symmetries in nature.
  8. Parity is a property of a wave function or state vector.
  9. Conservation of parity is the rule that odd wave functions must remain odd and even must remain even.
  10. It was found experimentally that the parity was not conserved in the β-decay of cobalt-60.
  11. Protons and the neutron have finite size or a structure.
  12. Both have their magnetic moment distributed over a finite radius.
  13. Proton also has its electric charge similarly distributed.
  14. Both the proton and the neutron consist of cores surrounded by clouds of mesons.
  15. In the neutron the clouds seem to cancel one another.
  16. In the proton these clouds appeared to add to the effect of their charges.
  17. Every nucleus has a core of electric charge surrounded by a thin skin in which the charge falls off to zero quite quickly. 
  18. In this nuclear core the charge density is constant.

THEORY
The atom is a vortex of condensing substance.

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Einstein’s Legacy

Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

[In bold black are the published facts. In color are some comments.]

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Einstein provided ground breaking physical reasoning to establish the reality of molecules, electromagnetic radiation and physical space. He proved the existence of molecules directly by relating it to the observable phenomenon of Brownian motion mathematically.

Matter, as a substance, is reducible to discrete point-particles that have momentum and inertia. Such properties are distinctive of “mass”.The “mass” of the electron is seen as increasing with velocity; but it is actually the inertia of electron that is increasing when accelerated. Electron has charge but it has no mass because it is not reducible to a point-particle.

Einstein established beyond any doubt that electromagnetic radiation has particle-like properties. In spite of its wave properties radiation was not a disturbance in some postulated ether. Radiation field could exist in space quite independently of palpable matter. Einstein visualized radiation as made up of unchanging energy-packets (quanta) distributed discontinuously in space. Einstein proved further that energy and mass are equivalent, and mechanics could no longer be maintained as the foundation of physics.

The particle-like properties of electromagnetic radiation are actually substance-like properties of momentum and inertia. Radiation is a different kind substance in that its momentum and inertia are many orders of magnitude less than that of matter, and it follows the laws of electromagnetism instead of Newton’s laws of motion. The wave-particle dilemma disappears when radiation is viewed as a fluid-like substance with a diffused consistency rather than a particle-like concentrated consistency in space. Maxwell’s model accounted for the intensity of radiation but not its unchanging consistency. The consistency naturally provides the unit of energy involved in the absorption and emission of that radiation. This is the quantum.

Einstein further established the nature of electromagnetic substance through his special theory of relativity. He determined that no observer (inertial frame) could travel at the speed of light. He postulated that the laws of nature, including the speed of light, should appear the same in all inertial frames moving with uniform speed with respect to each other. This became the basis of Einstein’s relativity. It resulted in the revision of the concepts of space and time.

The waves of electromagnetic substance are analogous to the waves of disturbance in a material medium. They are described by the same mathematics; but they are actually different in reality. The wave in a material medium is described by frequency, wave-length and period. However, the corresponding characteristics of an electromagnetic wave are best described as consistency, volume-space and duration. As frequency increases, wave-length decreases and period becomes increasingly repetitive. Similarly, as the consistency of radiation increases, its volume-space condenses and its duration at a location increases. This results in the reduction of speed. Thus, we see electron moving much slower than light. Since the consistency of light is many orders of magnitude less than the consistency of matter, the speed of light is many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of inertial frames in the material domain. Therefore, the speed of light appears to be constant for any uniformly moving coordinate system in the material domain. This is a good approximation. The mathematics of special relativity then follows. Matter and electromagnetic radiation are two different kind of substances that exist in space. Their relative motion is an expression of their relative consistency. The perception of space and time is fixed in nature through this relationship. 

Einstein also published an analysis indicating the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is not a mere accident of nature, but the basis of a profound physical principle that leads to a new theory of gravity. Einstein realized that mathematical descriptions of nature were to be taken as laws only if their forms remain unchanged in going from one frame of reference to any other frame by the most general type of coordinate transformation we can imagine. This became his general theory of relativity.

From matter to electromagnetic radiation the substance undergoes orders of magnitude reduction in its essential property of inertia. A similar orders of magnitude reduction takes place from electromagnetic radiation to space. The substance of space is currently recognized as the Higgs Field. As material and electromagnetic substances move through space, there is a resistance that appears as inertia. The more is the acceleration, the greater is the inertia. When the acceleration is fixed and balanced by inertia it appears as the consistency of the quantum or mass. Here we have the Higgs field converting into the quantum or mass and vice versa. Please see A New Theory of Gravitation.

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