Category Archives: Physics Book

The Physics Book.

Matter & Void

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The first thing we observe about the concepts of matter and void is that there is assumed to be a sharp discontinuity at the interface between them. Since objectivity follows the law of continuity, we expect matter not to stop abruptly, but to thin out gradually, until there is complete absence of matter and all substance (void). We, therefore, need to examine the interface between matter and void more closely.



We use a more general term “substance” for matter because, matter appears substantial to us to the degree it impacts our senses. Matter is a phenomenon that we sense through our five physical senses. Then we use the sixth mental sense to combine the input from those physical senses to arrive at deeper understanding. This has led us to the discovery of the atomic nature of matter.

Matter has a lessening impact from solids to gases. That means matter thins out as its state changes from solids to gases. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the atoms of matter moving farther apart lessening its density or concentration. This then requires that we take a closer look at the atom to see where it ends, and the void begins.



In ancient times atoms were visualized to be matter particles that were very small, solid, indivisible and permanent. Newton (1642–1727) theorized that such particles have mass, motion and inertia, and they interact with each other through force. Therefore, a particle, such as, atom could be represented by a mathematical point called center of mass.

The modern atomic theory was born at the beginning of 19th century. Dalton (1766–1844) theorized that atoms of the same element are alike, but atoms of different elements are different; atoms of different elements combine in certain definite ratios. The idea of atoms being hard, solid and impenetrable particles, continued to be held.

However, some scientists disagreed. Boscovich (1711–1787) theorized that atoms cannot be hard, rigid, massive spheres because they cannot change their velocity instantaneously upon collision, as it violated the law of continuity. He visualized atoms as point particles enveloped by force.

Faraday (1791–1867) found that the traditional model of atom as hard, solid and impenetrable particles, led to contradictions in explaining electrical conduction. To Faraday, the Boscovich’s model explained electrical conduction. It also explained “action at a distance” better than the idea of aether. He saw atoms as centers of force from which “tubes of force” extended connecting one atom to another even at infinite distance. He saw “force” as a substance that fills all space to which gravitation extends. To Faraday, atoms appeared to be solid because force was very concentration at their location. Faraday’s arguments were straightforward and persuasive as found here in a letter written by him: “A speculation touching Electric Conduction and the Nature of Matter”.

According to current atomic models, every atom is composed of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. More than 99.94% of an atom’s mass is concentrated in the nucleus. Electrons are considered to be particles that are 1840 times lighter than the nuclear particles.


Electronic Substance

Physics treats electrons as particles, but in a mathematical sense only. In truth, electrons do not have center of mass, so they cannot be differentiated from each other as real particles. The consideration of electrons as “particles” comes from discrete sub-atomic interactions that electrons participate in.

Even physics considers electrons to have a wave-like nature. It talks about “electron clouds” within the atom that fill over 99% of the atomic volume. This writer finds it more appropriate to consider an atom to consist of “electronic substance” rather than electrons. The nucleus itself extends as electronic substance with no gap in between. This compares more closely to Boscovich’s model that was supported by Faraday. The electronic substance is the same thing as the “force” of Boscovich and Faraday.

Therefore, the only particle within the atom is the nucleus. The nuclear substance is more concentrated form of electronic substance. The standard model of particle physics documents the discrete sub-atomic interactions, and not particles in space.


Beyond the Atom

So far, we see matter as nuclear substance that thins out as electronic substance. Mathematically, the electrons may extend to any distance from atoms as wave functions. In Faraday’s model, the force (electronic substance) extends out and connects to other atoms regardless of the distance between them. As a result, the electronic substance thins out in space between the atoms.

The space between the atoms is not empty. This is so with all space in general. It is filled with particle-less radiation that consists of light and the cosmic microwave background. This radiation is not wave in some mysterious substance called aether. It is a fast moving, extremely thin substance that has wave-like properties. Please see Faraday’s letter for his excellent arguments on this subject: “Thoughts on Ray Vibrations.”

Physics treats particle-less radiation mathematically, as electromagnetic radiation, and considers it to be made up of discrete quanta. In reality, this radiation is a continuum. The idea of quantum is based on the discovery that the energy of radiation is proportional to its frequency. This discovery showed that radiation could not be a wave because the energy of a wave is proportional to the square of its amplitude. This only confirms the atomic view forwarded by Boscovich and Faraday. The “force” thins out from atom into broad space. In other words, “discrete” matter reduces into a “continuum” of thick electronic substance that thins out as radiation.

But even the apparent discreteness of matter is entirely due to discrete energy interactions with our senses. Similarly, the apparent discreteness of quantum is entirely due to discrete energy interactions with measuring instruments.

In reality, matter, or substance, is a continuum in space.

Where this thinning out of matter ends and void begins may only be speculated.

There is no firm boundary where matter ends, and void begins.


Inertial & Gravitational Mass


Chapter 36: Einstein’s Legacy – Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

“He also published an analysis indicating the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is not a mere accident of nature, but the basis of a profound physical principle that leads to a new theory of gravity.”

NOTE: Inertial mass is a mass parameter giving the inertial resistance to acceleration of the body when responding to all types of force. Gravitational mass is determined by the strength of the gravitational force experienced by the body when in the gravitational field g.


To me, inertial mass balances the intrinsic motion. Light has very large but finite velocity because it has an “inertial mass” restraining infinite motion. As inertial mass increases the intrinsic velocity decreases. A body of infinite inertial mass may be postulated to be at absolute rest. Different inertial masses mean different intrinsic velocities. Thus, relative velocities may be understood in terms of differentials of inertial mass.

From this point of view, when a body is accelerating in a gravitational field, it means that the inertial mass of the body is somehow reduced by that gravitational field. Since this reduction is extremely small, the “gravitational mass” appears to be the same as the “inertial mass”.


The World of Atom (Part V)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 21: Atoms and Electricity – Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867)

The volume of energy around point masses is like a field made up of “tubes of force”.

Chapter 22: Electromagnetic Theory – James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879)

The field extended in space is electromagnetic in nature containing alternate transformation between electric and magnetic fields.

Chapter 23: Cathode Rays – A “Fourth State of Matter” – William Crookes (1832 – 1919)

The electric current leaves a conductor into a vacuum as a laminar flow of “cathode rays”.

Chapter 24: A Remarkable Regularity in the Hydrogen Spectrum – Johann Jacob Balmer (1825 – 1898)

The wavelength of any line in the spectrum of hydrogen can be obtained by multiplying a certain numerical factor by a series of fractions.

Chapter 25: The Luminiferous Ether Receives a Mortal Blow – Albert A. Michelson (1852 – 1931), Edward W. Morley (1838 – 1923)

There is no detectable relative motion between Earth and the supposed luminiferous aether. This raised question about light being a disturbance in some medium.

POSTULATE: Light is an electromagnetic fluid-like substance. It is not a disturbance in some postulated aether.


The Space-Time

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Matter is rigid and discrete, as defined by its extents. The word “rigid” is used in the sense opposite to “flexible” meaning “firmly fixed or set”. And the word “discrete” is used in the sense opposite to “continuous” meaning “apart or detached from others; separate; distinct”. The dimensions of matter are depicted as rigid and discrete by Euclidian geometry. We can talk about the dimensions of matter in terms of units that are fixed and discrete, but we cannot do so for space that is empty of matter.

Space that is empty of matter, is not empty of energy. Energy flows like a fluid, and it can thicken up from a dilute state like a fluid; the only difference being that energy is not made up particles like atoms. The quanta of energy do not refer to a particle but to thickness (viscosity) of energy. As energy thickens up it increasingly becomes rigid and discrete like matter. Thus, there is a gradient of rigidity and discreteness. Space is defined by what it is filled with. “Empty” space is defined not by the rigidity and discreteness of matter (as we do currently), but by the flexibility and continuity of energy.

A location is considered fixed in space and discrete by Euclidian geometry; but this is true only for space filled by matter. When space is empty of matter, we cannot fix or pinpoint a location in it. A location in space is not discrete but continuous with the space around it. Mathematics considers a discrete point to be a primitive notion. This now comes under question. Rather continuous space should be a primitive notion.

A certain quantum of energy may be defined more correctly as a certain “viscosity” of energy. This “viscosity” of energy increases with frequency until it collapses into mass at the center of the atom (as its nucleus). We, may, therefore, say that, from the viewpoint of mathematics, a location in space shifts from continuity to discreteness on a gradient. This provides a new dimension to Calculus.

The new calculus will approach discreteness from continuity the way condensing energy would approach matter. The infinitesimals of this calculus are, therefore, shrinkable from the flexibility of continuity to the rigidity of discreteness. Currently, the infinitesimals of Calculus are assumed to be rigid like matter, regardless of how small they get. But as matter divides it does not stop at atom; it starts to become more “viscous” in the form of electrons, quantum particles and the electromagnetic field beyond.

We cannot use the rigid infinitesimals of Calculus for the electromagnetic fields, that is why we have a different mathematics for Quantum mechanics. If we can add the dimension of “viscosity” (or frequency) to the infinitesimals, we may extend the use of Calculus to Quantum Mechanics. Physics is struggling to get rid of conditioning due to matter. It cannot get rid of that conditioning unless mathematics gets rid of it first. We need mathematics that approaches discreteness from the direction of continuity.

We cannot use the dimensionless Euclidean point as primitive notion because it is not seen as expanding into a continuous space. But we can use continuous space as primitive notion because we can see it as shrinking to generate a dense point that approaches discreteness. It is this “viscosity” of infinitesimals that can be associated increasingly with discreteness.

As the “viscosity” of energy increases, rotational fields start to form within the electromagnetic fields. The first stable form of such rotational field is the electron. As these rotational fields grow, their center starts to collapse to form a hard nucleus due to high “viscosity”. The next stable form of this rotational field appears to be the hydrogen atom.

As we can see, the space contracts as energy condenses with increasing frequency (viscosity). The theory of special relativity talks about contraction of space at speeds approaching the speed of light. This conclusion is subjective because Einstein’s observer is not using the context of the whole universe as its reference.

Objectivity exists to the degree observer uses the whole universe as its reference. This means using all physical and mental senses. The moment one uses part of the universe as its reference one’s viewpoint descends into subjectivity. Thus, mathematics employed by Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity is subjective.

Objectivity is the consistency among inputs from all physical and mental senses. To the degree this consistency is missing, observation is incomplete and subjective.


The World of Atom (Part IV)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 19: Polyatomic Molecules – Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826 – 1910)

Elements combine as multiples of a certain quantity called their atomic weight. 

Chapter 20: The Periodic Table of the Elements – Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834 – 1907)

The elements, arranged according to magnitude of atomic weight, show a periodic change of properties.

POSTULATE: The idea of atoms and molecules applies to chemical reactions.


Stanislao Cannizzaro (1826 – 1910) adopted a molecular, i.e., polyatomic, view of the elements, and showed that the atomic weights of elements, prepared in volatile compounds, could be deduced by the application of Avogadro’s hypothesis together with accurate combining weight data and vapor densities.

Cannizzaro’s greatest contribution was that “the different quantities of the same element contained in different molecules are all whole multiples of one and the same quantity, which always being entire, has the right to be called an atom.”

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834 – 1907) discovered that the elements, arranged according to magnitude of atomic weight, show a periodic change of properties. He arranged elements in vertical columns according to increasing atomic weight, so that the horizontal lines contain analogous elements, again according to increasing atomic weight. This resulted in a table from which several general conclusions could be drawn, such as, chemically analogous elements have atomic weights either in close agreement or increasing by equal amounts. The table showed new analogies, suggested corrections to some atomic weights, and predicted many new elements that were later discovered.

It showed that the elements most widely distributed in nature have small atomic weights, and all such elements are distinguished by their characteristic behavior. They are thus typical, and the lightest element, hydrogen, is therefore rightly chosen as the typical unit of mass. The magnitude of the atomic weight determines the properties of the element, whence, in the study of compounds, regard is to be paid not only to the number and properties of the elements and their mutual action, but to the atomic weights of the elements.

Mendeleev founded his system upon the quantity of the atomic weight because “the atomic weight is a quantity which does not refer to the momentary state of an element but belongs to a material part of it, a part which it has in common with the free element and with all its compounds.”

Thus, elements combine as multiples of a certain quantity called their atomic weight. This is similar to the later idea of “quantum”.  This “atomic weight” as quantum applies to chemical reactions. It refers to atomic configurations that are stable in themselves and in molecular combinations. The implication is that chemical combinations of elements in random quantities are not possible. It is this quantity or multiple of this quantity that exists freely in equilibrium with the background of primary substance also. The whirlpool model of the atom is consistent with this observation.