Category Archives: Physics Book

The Physics Book.

Einstein’s Legacy

Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

[In bold black are the published facts. In color are some comments.]

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Einstein provided ground breaking physical reasoning to establish the reality of molecules, electromagnetic radiation and physical space. He proved the existence of molecules directly by relating it to the observable phenomenon of Brownian motion mathematically.

Matter, as a substance, is reducible to discrete point-particles that have momentum and inertia. Such properties are distinctive of “mass”.The “mass” of the electron is seen as increasing with velocity; but it is actually the inertia of electron that is increasing when accelerated. Electron has charge but it has no mass because it is not reducible to a point-particle.

Einstein established beyond any doubt that electromagnetic radiation has particle-like properties. In spite of its wave properties radiation was not a disturbance in some postulated ether. Radiation field could exist in space quite independently of palpable matter. Einstein visualized radiation as made up of unchanging energy-packets (quanta) distributed discontinuously in space. Einstein proved further that energy and mass are equivalent, and mechanics could no longer be maintained as the foundation of physics.

The particle-like properties of electromagnetic radiation are actually substance-like properties of momentum and inertia. Radiation is a different kind substance in that its momentum and inertia are many orders of magnitude less than that of matter, and it follows the laws of electromagnetism instead of Newton’s laws of motion. The wave-particle dilemma disappears when radiation is viewed as a fluid-like substance with a diffused consistency rather than a particle-like concentrated consistency in space. Maxwell’s model accounted for the intensity of radiation but not its unchanging consistency. The consistency naturally provides the unit of energy involved in the absorption and emission of that radiation. This is the quantum.

Einstein further established the nature of electromagnetic substance through his special theory of relativity. He determined that no observer (inertial frame) could travel at the speed of light. He postulated that the laws of nature, including the speed of light, should appear the same in all inertial frames moving with uniform speed with respect to each other. This became the basis of Einstein’s relativity. It resulted in the revision of the concepts of space and time.

The waves of electromagnetic substance are analogous to the waves of disturbance in a material medium. They are described by the same mathematics; but they are actually different in reality. The wave in a material medium is described by frequency, wave-length and period. However, the corresponding characteristics of an electromagnetic wave are best described as consistency, volume-space and duration. As frequency increases, wave-length decreases and period becomes increasingly repetitive. Similarly, as the consistency of radiation increases, its volume-space condenses and its duration at a location increases. This results in the reduction of speed. Thus, we see electron moving much slower than light. Since the consistency of light is many orders of magnitude less than the consistency of matter, the speed of light is many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of inertial frames in the material domain. Therefore, the speed of light appears to be constant for any uniformly moving coordinate system in the material domain. This is a good approximation. The mathematics of special relativity then follows. Matter and electromagnetic radiation are two different kind of substances that exist in space. Their relative motion is an expression of their relative consistency. The perception of space and time is fixed in nature through this relationship. 

Einstein also published an analysis indicating the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is not a mere accident of nature, but the basis of a profound physical principle that leads to a new theory of gravity. Einstein realized that mathematical descriptions of nature were to be taken as laws only if their forms remain unchanged in going from one frame of reference to any other frame by the most general type of coordinate transformation we can imagine. This became his general theory of relativity.

From matter to electromagnetic radiation the substance undergoes orders of magnitude reduction in its essential property of inertia. A similar orders of magnitude reduction takes place from electromagnetic radiation to space. The substance of space is currently recognized as the Higgs Field. As material and electromagnetic substances move through space, there is a resistance that appears as inertia. The more is the acceleration, the greater is the inertia. When the acceleration is fixed and balanced by inertia it appears as the consistency of the quantum or mass. Here we have the Higgs field converting into the quantum or mass and vice versa. Please see A New Theory of Gravitation.

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The Reality of “Ether”

My recent realization has been that the concept of “ether” was discarded not only by Einstein but also by Faraday and Maxwell.

The concept of “ether” that was discarded was a “medium in which light traveled as a wave.” 

Faraday replaced that “ether” by the concept of a field of force. Maxwell gave that field the sense of being an electromagnetic substance. Light became this electromagnetic substance instead of being a disturbance in some static medium.

Einstein then added further meat to that electromagnetic substance, which varied up and down the electromagnetic spectrum. He recognized the property of the momentum of radiation and equated it with the momentum of matter to come up with famous energy-matter equivalence. 

But Einstein assumed the electromagnetic substance to exist in the form of small or large discrete energy-packets in space. There is no reason why momentum of radiation cannot be viewed as coming from the consistency of a fluid-like continuum view of energy. It does not change the mathematics. See the above excerpt from Einstein’s autobiographical notes.

The consistency of a fluid-like continuum of energy can express a quantum just as well as a point-like discrete energy-packet in space.

Now we can go back to the ancient view of “ether” as being the substance of space itself. We may now associate that with the Higgs field. The secret of gravitation may now be explored through the Higgs field.

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A New Theory of Gravitation

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Matter and electromagnetic radiation are two different kind of substances that exist in in space. It appears that space is also a substance that is very different from electromagnetic radiation and matter. When something moves through space, it is like a “condensed pattern of substance” passing through the substance of space. At the front end of that pattern space is transforming into that pattern; and at the back end the pattern is transforming back into space. It, therefore, appears that the pattern is moving through the space.

This explains why matter, that has the highest consistency of substance, also have the lowest speed, because the gradient of conversion from space to matter is extremely high. Therefore, matter resists being accelerated in space. It has the highest inertia.

Compared to matter, light has a much higher natural speed in space. But this speed has a limit. This means that light also has inertia, but it is many orders of magnitude smaller than the inertia of matter. The light consists of electromagnetic field, which has a consistency many orders of magnitude lower than matter. That seems to explain the high natural speed of light.

Electron exists at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum. That means its consistency is much higher than the consistency of light but not as high as that of matter. When electron is “accelerated,” its consistency increases, and so does its inertia. This is seen as the “mass of the electron increasing with velocity.”

Can the above theory explain the gravitational force between two heavenly bodies?

We may postulate that the gravitational field around the planets exists because the space has become more concentrated around the planets. The gravitational force between two planets is related to the masses of the planets and the space between them. The space between the planets shall be more concentrated than the space behind them. The gradient of conversion from space to mass is smaller between the two planets, compared to the gradient from mass to space behind them. This differential of gradient on the two sides of each planet will naturally propel them toward each other. We attribute the reason for this attraction to the “gravitational force.”

In other words, when two masses are accelerating towards each other, the space between them is condensing and converting to masses faster than the mass converting back into space on the back side. There is a conversion differential set up that is pushing the masses toward each other.

Gravity is the condensation of space near the masses. Space is more condensed between the masses than away from them. Condensed space converts more easily into mass. That generates the attraction between the masses.

Electromagnetic radiation has boundaries with space too. Substance is converting between space and electromagnetic radiation at these boundaries. This explains motion and inertia of electromagnetic radiation.

When something is moving in space it is eating space at the front end and spitting it out at the other end. This is the basic postulate on which this theory of gravitation is based.

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Gravitational Radiation

Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

The DOPA (Differential Opposing Partial Absorption) theory has four presumptive tenets. Firstly, that gravitational waves exist. Secondly, that they are traveling through the universe in every direction. Thirdly, that they penetrate and pass through matter with great ease. And, fourthly, that in passing through matter they impose a tiny accelerating force on each atom in the direction of wave propagation, giving up energy in exchange.

DOPA theory does not define what a gravitational wave is. According to the “Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics” (LATP) a gravitational wave is more like “fluctuations” in the gravitational field. 

A field has substance. This substance has consistency (a degree of density, firmness, viscosity, etc.). The field fluctuates in its consistency. Such fluctuations appear as force. A fluctuation spreads through the field. The rapidity with which it spreads depends on the consistency of the field. The lower is the consistency the more rapidly the fluctuation spreads in the field. The fluctuation spreads out in all directions.

It is postulated that this gravitational field is space itself, and the fluctuations in space appear as gravitational force. The consistency of space is extremely small. Therefore, the progress of gravitational fluctuation through space is extremely rapid.

The electromagnetic field has a very large spectrum. The fluctuations in electromagnetic field appear as the electromagnetic force that radiates out in all directions. Light is an example of it. The electromagnetic field has much higher consistency than space. Therefore, it is expected that gravitational fluctuation shall spread much faster than the speed of light.

We may, therefore, assume the presence of “gravitational radiation.”

We understand the atom to be an “energy whirlpool” in which energy is condensing toward its center. This is the same pattern that we see in galaxies. The atom has its “nucleus” at the center just like the galaxy has its “black hole.” Atoms are oriented in random directions in space just like the galaxies are. We may say that matter forms the upper end of the energy spectrum.

The force that fills the space has both gravitational and electromagnetic characteristics. As energy condenses into mass at the center of the atom, both gravitational and electromagnetic force gets concentrated in the nucleus. As this force spreads out from the atom it exhibits only its gravitational component at the farthest reaches. Thus, it may be said that gravitational force “penetrates and passes through matter with great ease.”

Of course, gravitational force is manifested throughout the universe. We see it manifested at cosmic level. It is then not a stretch to consider the gravitational force also being manifested at the atomic level.

The gravitational force is the ultimate expression of substance. We know matter as substance because it is obviously substantial. Since Einstein we have come to recognize energy as a substance too. Now it seems that we need to recognize space itself as a substance for it carries the gravitational radiation.

DOPA seems to assume that gravitational waves by default are very strong. The gravitational force becomes strong only when “space” condenses itself as “mass.” DOPA seems to assume non-moving points in space. Non-moving points in space are simply the points of condensed space.

“Substantiality” is the most fundamental dimension in this universe. Substantiality increases from space to energy to matter. The gradient of substantiality appears as force. There is a high gradient of substantiality between the nucleus and surrounding electronic region. This is where force appears as charge.

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DOPA = Differential Opposing Partial Absorption
LIGO = Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatories at Livingston and Hanford, USA.
EMF = Electromagnetic Field

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Light “Waves” or Energy Consistency?

Planck’s quantum of action ‘h’ shows that radiative energy is proportional to “frequency”. In case of a wave, which is a disturbance in a medium, the energy is proportional to the square of amplitude. Therefore, the electromagnetic energy cannot be a disturbance in a material medium. The frequency of energy is not a rate of disturbance; instead, it is the rate of transitions between electrical and magnetic fields. Since the speed of electromagnetic radiation is constant, its frequency is, probably, better interpreted as its consistency.

The “wave nature” of electromagnetic radiation is very different from that of a wave in water or air. An energy or light wave is neither transversal nor longitudinal.

Newton’s corpuscles and Planck-Einstein quanta are correct in the sense that light is not a disturbance in some medium, but it is something physical.

However, these corpuscles/quanta are not discrete “particles” in space; instead, they represent the consistency of energy.

Quantum doesn’t really break the sense of continuity of variables of the classical mechanics when frequency is interpreted as consistency. It does change the consideration of Maxwell’s theory, which assumes the consistency of electromagnetic energy to be constant.

Maxwell’s theory assumes the consistency of electromagnetic energy to be constant.

As consistency gets thicker there are sudden transitions possible from thinner to thicker consistency. This may give an illusion of discontinuity, but that is simply a sharp gradient.

The boundary between matter and void is not a discontinuity, but an extreme gradient in the consistency of energy.

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