Category Archives: Physics

The World of Atom (Part VIII)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 41: The Discovery of Cosmic Rays – Viktor F. Hess (1883 – 1964)
Penetrating Radiation in Seven free Balloon Flights. When these very energetic particles strike the earth’s atmosphere, they give rise to vast showers of other atomic and subatomic particles.

Chapter 42: The Cloud Chamber – Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869 – 1959)
On an Expansion Apparatus for Making Visible the Tracks of Ionizing Particles in Gases and Some Results Obtained by Its Use. The marvel of seeing the path of charged atomic particles and of atomic collisions was realized through the trails of fog-like droplets that the particles left in their wakes.


Sub-atomic particles are essentially rays.


The World of Atom (Part VII)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 37: The “Thomson” Atom – J. J. Thomson (1856 – 1940)
An Arrangement of Corpuscles in the Atom. The electrons are assumed to be corpuscles because their charges are quantized.

Chapter 38: The Determination of Avogadro’s Number – Jean Perrin (1870 – 1942)
Brownian Motion and Molecular Reality. It suggests that every fluid is formed of elastic molecules, animated by a perpetual motion.

Chapter 39: The Alpha-Particle and Helium – Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937)
The Nature of the Alpha-Particle from Radioactive Substance. Direct proof that alpha-particles are indeed ionized helium atoms

Chapter 40: Atoms of Electricity – Robert Andrews Millikan (1868 – 1953)
The Atomic Nature of Electricity. Direct experimental measurements to show the constancy of charge and its value.


Unlike the material particles, the sub-atomic particles are fuzzy.


Perception and Reality

How your perception is your reality, according to psychologists | Well+Good

Matter is the visible layer of the universe. It is made up of discrete particles. These particles have distinct properties of mass and inertia. The next layer is made up of particles of electricity. They have much less mass and inertia, but they carry the property of charge. The subsequent layers are made up of electromagnetic radiation where “particle” properties are gradually replaced by “wave” properties. Instead of mass or charge, we have the property of “frequency”.

If the layer of matter is solid energy, the next layer of electricity is like a thick fluid of energy. The subsequent layers of electromagnetic radiation are like fluid energy that is gradually thinning in consistency. The “particle” property is slowly replaced by the “wave” property as the fluid energy becomes increasingly thinner.

From material to electricity to electromagnetic layers the flow of energy also lessens in curvature from a tight ball to circles of increasing radius until the path becomes almost a straight line. This gives a vortex-like picture of the atom, galaxy and the universe. at the center of which is the nucleus, or a black hole, and the energy becoming increasingly fluid and thinning toward some indistinct periphery.

The nucleus of an atom is made up of very condensed energy that appears as a solid ball. Electrons are 1840 times “thinner”, and less curved in their path. Schrödinger’s equation simply describes the flow of a very thick fluid-like energy that is curving on itself but has not yet become as condensed as the solid nucleus. Other quantum “particles” are fluid energy that simply varies in consistency and curvature.

The idea of “particle” comes from the impact it generates upon collision. This impact furnishes the ideas of mass and force. If you magnify this quantum “particle” it will appear to be made of a force field spread in space. This is the same thing as fluid energy of a certain consistency. This consistency gets thinner as the “frequency” decreases. So, the bottom most layer of this universe shall have no consistency or “frequency”. This is the significance of the Higgs boson. It is the fundamental layer of the universe that coagulates to form all the layers above it.

When we look at atom as a particle, we shall see it as consisting of all layers—mass of highest consistency at the center to the Higgs boson of least consistency at the periphery of a vortex. What is beyond the Higgs boson is as yet unknown. Maybe those unknown layers beyond are somehow made up of emotion and thought. The question would then become, “What is beyond thought?” Ultimately, we’ll have to admit the presence of some unknown dimension from which thought, emotion, energy and their innate motion arise and, then vanish back into it with the pattern of layers maintained eternally. This is the ultimate study of creation and destruction.

We may refer to the unknown dimension as BRAHMAN or GOD, but that does not make it knowable. We have simply given it another label. This dimension cannot be accessed through reasoning because the human intellect lies in the energy dimension. But it may be accessed in deep state of meditation.

The Isha Upanishad states, “the Brahman forms everything that is living or non-living … the wise man knows that all beings are identical with his self, and his self is the self of all beings.”



ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

This is going to be an ongoing project that is starting out with the following definitions. Feedback is appreciated.


PHYSICS (General)

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. Physics has no definition for “substance”. It simply defines certain physical properties mathematically.

An extremely small particle of matter.

All objects are persisting on their own; nothing else is making them persist. ENERGY, therefore, is the impulse innate to the object, which makes it persist. That persistence expresses itself further as motion and/or tension. This was Faraday’s view. Maxwell saw ENERGY as “the power a thing has of doing work arising either from its own motion or from the tension subsisting between it and other things.” Unlike Faraday, Maxwell did not relate it to something innate. Therefore, in physics, neither motion nor tension has innate origins.

Mass is condensed energy. (Also see under Newton’s Mechanics).

We perceive objects and their substance by how they impact our senses. This impact is always in the form of FORCE. Therefore, we may consider FORCE to be synonymous with substance. This was Faraday’s view. Maxwell, however, saw force only as “the tendency of a body to pass from one place to another,” which depends upon “the amount of change of tension which that passage would produce.” Thus, he saw force as change in energy over distance. Here distance is not defined but considered subjectively only. Unlike Faraday, Maxwell did not relate force directly to the nature of substance.

Faraday conceived lines of force as the force extending between atoms that forms the fabric of space between them. These lines of force carry the vibrations of the radiative phenomena. Maxwell and other physicists postulated space consisting of mysterious aether instead.

A particle of matter that cannot be divided further. Faraday saw atom as the center of force. The concentrated force appears as mass. Maxwell and other physicists, however, saw atom as the smallest, indivisible unit of matter.

Newton’s mechanics dealt only with material particles. Maxwell’s equations introduced continuous fields. Thus, there was an inconsistency that was bridged over by the discovery of quanta. Quanta provides a gradient from continuous field to discrete material particles. 



Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to change in its state of motion when a net force is applied. An object’s mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies.

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. 

In physics, the kinetic energy (KE) of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body when decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest.

The speed, and thus the kinetic energy of a single object is frame-dependent (relative): it can take any non-negative value, by choosing a suitable inertial frame of reference. For example, a bullet passing an observer has kinetic energy in the reference frame of this observer. The same bullet is stationary to an observer moving with the same velocity as the bullet, and so has zero kinetic energy. By contrast, the total kinetic energy of a system of objects cannot be reduced to zero by a suitable choice of the inertial reference frame, unless all the objects have the same velocity. In any other case, the total kinetic energy has a non-zero minimum, as no inertial reference frame can be chosen in which all the objects are stationary. This minimum kinetic energy contributes to the system’s invariant mass, which is independent of the reference frame.

Momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction.

Change in momentum over time.

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. 

In physics, work is the process of energy transfer to the motion of an object via application of a force, often represented as the product of force and displacement. 



The mole is the unit of measurement for amount of substance. A mole of particles is defined as 6.022 × 10^23 particles, which may be atoms, molecules, ions, or electrons. The mass of one mole of a chemical compound, in grams, is numerically equal (for all practical purposes) to the average mass of one molecule of the compound, in atomic mass units).


The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It is approximately equal to the atomic mass of the atom expressed in atomic mass units. 


The atomic number of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of every atom of that element. The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element. It is identical to the charge number of the nucleus. In an uncharged atom, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles that are not subject to inter-particle interactions. The ideal gas concept is useful because it obeys the ideal gas law, a simplified equation of state, and is amenable to analysis under statistical mechanics.

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is often written in an empirical form:
PV = nRT
where P, V and T are the pressure, volume and temperature; n is the amount of substance; and R is the ideal gas constant. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations.  

Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concepts, such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of energy transfer (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system (kT).

The internal energy keeps account of the gains and losses of energy of the system that are due to changes in its internal state. It is often not necessary to consider all of the system’s intrinsic energies. Internal energy is measured as a difference from a reference zero defined by a standard state. The processes that define the internal energy in the state of interest are transfers of matter, or of energy as heat, or as thermodynamic work. If the containing walls pass neither matter nor energy, the system is said to be isolated and its internal energy cannot change. Microscopically, the internal energy can be analyzed in terms of the kinetic energy of microscopic motion of the system’s particles from translations, rotations, and vibrations, and of the potential energy associated with microscopic forces, including chemical bonds.

In thermodynamics, heat is not the property of an isolated system. It is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system. Heat excludes any thermodynamic work that was done and any energy contained in matter transferred. Heat transfer occurs by the following mechanisms:

(1) Conduction, through direct contact of immobile bodies, or through a wall or barrier that is impermeable to matter.
(2) Radiation between separated bodies.
(3) Convective circulation that carries energy from a boundary of one to a boundary of the other.
(4) Friction due to work done by the surroundings on the system of interest, such as Joule heating.

Quantity of energy transferred as heat can be measured by its effect on the states of interacting bodies. For example, by the amount of ice melted, or by change in temperature of a body in the surroundings of the system. 

Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body (or thermodynamic system) in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body, and some macroscopic variables, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables, such as volume or pressure. The term is used in contrast to a latent heat, which is the amount of heat exchanged that is hidden, meaning it occurs without change of temperature. 

In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, by a mechanism through which the system can spontaneously exert macroscopic forces on its surroundings, where those forces, and their external effects, can be measured. 

Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of heat, a flow of energy, when a body is in contact with another that is colder.

Thermodynamic temperature is defined by the third law of thermodynamics in which the theoretically lowest temperature is the null or zero point. At this point, absolute zero, the particle constituents of matter have minimal motion and can become no colder. Thermodynamic temperature is often also called absolute temperature, for two reasons: the first, proposed by Kelvin, that it does not depend on the properties of a particular material; the second, that it refers to an absolute zero according to the properties of the ideal gas.



Electrical work is the work done on a charged particle by an electric field. The electrical work per unit of charge, when moving a negligible test charge between two points, is defined as the voltage between those points.


The World of Atom (Part VI)

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics



Chapter 26: The Discovery of X-rays – Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845 – 1923)
Cathode rays falling on the glass surface produces X-rays. The X-rays exhibit the properties of light waves of very short wavelength. 

Chapter 27: The Discovery of Radioactivity – Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852 – 1908)
Uranium salts emit radiation without any external excitation.

Chapter 28: The Discovery of the Electron – J. J. Thomson (1856 – 1940)
The substance of cathode rays is charge itself. Its charge to mass ratio is 2000 times greater than hydrogen ions, and the speed is many thousands times higher too.

Chapter 29: The Discovery of Polonium and Radium – Pierre Curie (1859 – 1906), Marie Sklodovska Curie (1867 – 1934)
The Curies isolated the radioactive elements Uranium, Polonium and Radium.

Chapter 30: The Discovery of α-and β-rays from Uranium – Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937)
Rutherford discovered the natural emission of α-and β-rays from Uranium.

Chapter 31: The Discovery of γ-rays – Paul Villard (1860 – 1934)
Paul Villard discovered the γ-rays as a natural emission from Radium.

Chapter 32: The Transformation of the Elements – Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937), Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956)
Radioactivity is a manifestation of subatomic change.

Chapter 33: The Quantum Theory of Radiation – Max Planck (1858 – 1947)
Radiational Energy is proportional to frequency, hence radiation (light) is not a disturbance propagating in aether.

Chapter 34: Mass Changes with Velocity – Walter Kaufmann (1871 – 1947)
The ratio e/m decreases with increased velocity of electrons. 

Chapter 35: The Electron Theory of Matter – Henrik Anton Lorentz (1853 – 1928)
Electrons are material particles that contract in the direction of motion.

Chapter 36: Einstein’s Legacy – Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)
Motion affects the measurements of space and time. Electromagnetic radiation condenses into quanta (particles) with increasing frequency. There is equivalence between energy and matter. A new theory of gravitation.



  1. There is a frequency spectrum to Electromagnetic radiation.
  2. There are spontaneous subatomic reactions.
  3. These reactions emit subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation.
  4. There are particles of charge quantized like particles of mass.
  5. Atomic structure becomes unstable at higher atomic mass.
  6. Electromagnetic energy is proportional to “frequency” and not to amplitude as in the case of a wave. This makes EM a substance and not a disturbance in substance.
  7. Electromagnetic radiation increasingly displays particle-like behavior at higher “frequencies”.
  8. There is intrinsic motion in atoms and molecules.
  9. The geometry of space-time and the laws of nature are interdependent. That means space and time are directly related to energy.
  10. Space and time form a space-time continuum of motion.
  11. Mass and energy are equivalent to each other.
  12. Inertial Mass and gravitational mass are equivalent, and they vary with motion.
  13. An inertial frame in a gravitational field cannot be distinguished from an accelerated frame in a field-free space.
  14. Gravity is a property of all particles from electron and photon to neutrino.
  15. A freely moving body will move in a “straight line” characteristic of the geometry of the space in which it is moving.



  1. Matter, electricity and EM radiation are different forms of the same substance.
  2. From matter to electricity to EM is a spectrum of decreasing frequency and increasing wavelength.
  3. As frequency of substance decreases, there is a gradual
  4. Increase in wavelength (expansion of space)
  5. Decrease in duration (expansion of time).
  6. Increase in intrinsic motion.
  7. Decrease in inertia and gravity.
  8. Increase in the curvature of motion.
  9. Space represents the extents of substance, and time represents the duration of the same substance.
  10. The intrinsic motion of substance is balanced by innate inertia. As inertia increases the motion decreases. A body of infinite inertia is at absolute rest.
  11. A force applied to a body increases its motion and reduces its inertia.
  12. That reduction in inertia is practically undetectable (it reduces by a factor of v2/c2).
  13. Atoms are vortices in a river of EM radiation. At the center of atom is a material nucleus and at its periphery is EM.
  14. Force is the property of intrinsic inertia of substance. The force becomes more intense as the inertia (substance) becomes more condensed.
  15. The gravitational force is the least intense, and the nuclear force is the most intense form of force.
  16. The presence of space means the presence of substance or field of certain consistency. As the consistency of field increases, the space curves increasingly.