Category Archives: Physics

The Spectrum of Substance

Reference: The Physics Book

The substance appears to made up of

  1. Nuclear “particles”
  2. Electronic “fluid”
  3. Electromagnetic “vapor”
  4. Gravitational “field”

The  “material particles” appears to consist of all the above components. The nuclear “particles” have very high mass density. They exist within the continuum of electronic “fluid.” 

The electronic “fluid” has much smaller mass density by several magnitudes. It exists within the continuum of electromagnetic “vapor”. 

The electromagnetic “vapor” has still smaller mass density by several magnitudes. It exists within the continuum of gravitational “field.”

The gravitational “field” has infinitesimal mass density and it fades into the void.

Finally, the void is absence of substance and, therefore, it cannot be sensed.

From nuclear mass to void, there is a spectrum of substance of decreasing mass density.

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The Structure of Substance

The stability of proton and electron depends on certain equilibrium of mass between these two states. This is equivalent to stability between solid ice and liquid water existing together in equilibrium. The ice-water equilibrium is marked by a certain temperature. Similarly, we may postulate that the equilibrium between the nuclear and electronic mass densities is marked by a certain “temperature” that is maintained within an atom.

Within the electronic region, there are distinct energy levels (stationary states) that are visible in atomic spectra. These levels also seem to indicate steps in the gradient of mass density that are also in equilibrium. There are finer steps within these steps which are called “fine structure.”

Similarly within the electromagnetic region we have different areas that have been categorized as follows:

  1. Gamma radiation
  2. X-ray radiation
  3. Ultraviolet radiation
  4. Visible radiation
  5. Infrared radiation
  6. Terahertz radiation
  7. Microwave radiation
  8. Radio waves

These areas are distinctly different from each other in their properties. Most likely there is a gradient step in mass density where one area ends and another area begins.

The spectrum of substance is marked by steps in mass density that become smaller as mass density becomes smaller.

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The Nature of Electron & Charge

Reference: The Physics Book

Within the hydrogen atom, the  mass of the surrounding electron is 1/1836 times the mass of the embedded proton, while the volume of the surrounding electron is about 9999 times the volume of the embedded proton. The appears to be a kind of inverse relationship between the mass and volume of subatomic structures.

We postulate that, at the quantum level, the volume is inversely proportional to mass.

We notice that the mass density of electrons is so small that they do not have centers of mass, and the laws of mechanics do not fully apply to them. This also means that the electrons may not exist as discrete “particles” because they cannot be differentiated from one another due to lack of centers of mass. Electrons are more like a “thick” fluid.

The electrons flow like fluids and their mass density appears as their “viscosity.”

The electrons have both mass and fluidity. This generates the idea of electrons being “particles” and “waves” at the same time. But this is an anomaly only if we assume the electrons to be “discrete particles.” 

Electrons are neither discrete particles nor made up of discrete particles.

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The Position of Electron

Introduced first in 1927 by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, the uncertainty principle states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be predicted from initial conditions, and vice versa. There is further explanation available here.

Origins of Uncertainty principle – Possible Flaw

This principle has been applied to the location of an electron within an atom. But since the electrons are not discrete particles, instead they fill the atom like a fluid, they do not have locations. They simply have fluidity with certain viscosity. The quantum numbers assigned to electrons indicate patterns within their fluidity.

Not being discrete particles, the electrons do not have locations within the atom.

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The Boundary and Charge

The interface between the nucleus and the surrounding electronic fluid comes closest to being the matter-void boundary. At this boundary there is a sudden drop in mass density. This sharp gradient in mass is the source of charge. The charge is a surface phenomenon.

Charge may be compared to the “surface tension” as it exists in drop-like free sub-atomic particles, such as, protons and electrons.

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Substance and Mass

Reference: The Physics Book

Traditionally, matter is generalized as substance. We use the word SUBSTANCE as a broad category for things that are physically substantial enough to be sensed. This makes force the key characteristic of substance. 

SUBSTANCE is anything that is substantial enough to be sensed.

Matter may be categorized as a special kind of substance that contains mass (inertial force). The laws of mechanics apply to all material particles because they have a center of mass.

MATTER is a substance that has the property of a center of mass.

Today we know that light may not have mass but it has momentum (impact). This qualifies light as a substance. We feel gravity through every cell of our body; so it would be a substance too. 

LIGHT and GRAVITY are substances that do not have a center of mass.

This provides us with a more accurate definition of VOID.

VOID is that which cannot be sensed.

The Structure of Atom

Hydrogen is the lightest material substance. The hydrogen atom consists of a proton and an electron. The tiny proton forms the nucleus at the center of the atom. The old atomic model assumed the electron and proton to be “particles” separated by a void. The negatively charged electron revolves around the positively charged proton as it is attracted towards it. But this configuration cannot be stable because an accelerating charged particle loses energy. The loss of energy will make the revolving electron immediately spiral into the proton.

The Quantum mechanics model of the atom is quite different, but it is described mathematically only. Realistically, 99.99% of the volume of the hydrogen atom is the electron. The tiny proton occupies only 0.01% of the volume at the center of the atom. It is like a tiny marble immersed in a large pond. There is no void separating the electron from the proton. They are very much in contact with each other. 

The proton consists of 1836/1837 of the total mass of the atom. The mass of the surrounding electron is 1/1836 times the mass of the embedded proton. If the proton consists of “solid mass,” we may consider the electron to consist of “liquid mass.” Furthermore, the atom is embedded in a much larger but much less concentrated force field of light and gravity. We may consider that force field to consist of “gaseous mass.”

Here we have used the terms “solid, liquid, and gaseous,” in the context of mass, only to make the point that the concept of mass need not be confined to matter only. It is a concept inherent to all substance.

Consistent with Faraday’s hypothesis of “force field” the concept of mass may be applied to matter, light and gravity equally. The mass becomes much dilated in case of light and gravity. This allows us to explain better the idea of momentum associated with light.

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Matter, Void & the Force Field

Reference: The Physics Book

The classical physics starts with the concepts of matter and void. These two concepts are connected in the sense that void is conceived as the absence of matter. 

Essentially, matter exists and moves within the void. 

Matter is conceived as the substance of the universe. It is concentrated in astronomical bodies. Such material bodies consist of material objects that can be broken down into smaller and smaller material particles. 

The smallest particle of matter is an atom this is considered to be infinitesimally small and spherical in shape. 

The laws of Newtonian mechanics apply to material bodies, objects and particles because they have a center of mass. Without a center of mass there is no material particle.

A material particle down to the atom is defined by a center of mass.

A material object consists of atoms. There is void among these atoms. As this void expands, the form of matter changes from solid to liquid to gaseous. 

All forms of matter—solid, liquid or gaseous—consist of atoms and a void among them.

There seems to exist a sharp boundary between matter and void at macroscopic level. Is that still the case at atomic level?

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The Force Field

We observe that the astronomical bodies influence each other from great distances. Newton (1642 – 1726) determined that this influence depended upon the mass of the material bodies and the distance between them. It was described as the force of gravity, and identified as the property of matter. This force could barely be detected between two material objects. But it was postulated to exist between two material particles down to the atoms. 

It was postulated that matter extends itself as the force of gravity throughout the void.

Roger Boscovich (1711 – 1787) developed a concept of “impenetrability” as a property of hard bodies which explained their behavior in terms of force rather than matter. He found that the continuity of force is a necessary assumption for determinism. He, therefore, saw atoms as centers of force.

Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) found that the concept of atoms as centers of force resolved the anomaly of electrical conduction in matter. He notes in his paper, Electrical Conduction & Nature of Matter, January 25, 1844:

“If we must assume at all, as indeed in a branch of knowledge like the present we can hardly help it, then the safest course appears to be to assume as little as possible, and in that respect the atoms of Boscovich appear to me to have a great advantage over the more usual notion. His atoms, if I understand aright, are mere centres of forces or powers, not particles of matter, in which the powers themselves reside.”

Faraday, thus, rejected the notion of “particles of matter surrounded by a system of powers.” He identified a “force field” as the basic substance that was concentrated in the atoms, and which filled the void among atoms.

Faraday defines matter to be essentially a “concentrated force field.”

Faraday further resolved the anomaly of light requiring an impossible ethereal medium by the concept of lines of force extending out from atoms. Essentially, matter, as a force field could thin out as lines of force to fill the void among material objects and bodies. This idea he presented in his paper, Thoughts on Ray Vibrations, April 15, 1846. 

Matter conceived as a force field that could thin out may explain the nature of light, and, possibly, the nature of gravity.

Faraday was convinced that the “conservation of force,” as in force field, could more than replace the principle of conservation of matter. He emphasized this with great intensity in his paper, On the Conservation of Force, February 27, 1857.

The force field may be able to substitute both matter and void as the sole substance of the universe.

Thus, we may look at matter, electricity, light, and heat as different concentrations of force field. Within an atom itself, the force field may exist on a gradient with maximum concentration at the center and least concentration at the periphery.

This hypothesis makes the void a very thinned out force field, and puts matter in continuum with that field while existing and moving within it.

The sharp boundary between matter and void, when looked closely, may be found to consist of a gradient of force.

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The Physics Book

Reference: Course on Subject Clearing

PREFACE

Preface: Physics Book January 17, 2019 at 10:38 PM

PART I

Boorse 1966: The World of Atom December 3, 2018 at 8:35 AM

  1. THE FOUNDATIONS OF ATOMIC THEORY
  2. THE FOUNDATIONS OF ATOMIC CHEMISTRY
  3. THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
  4. NEW CONFIRMATION OF CHEMICAL ATOMIC THEORY
  5. BEYOND THE ATOM
  6. THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS
  7. NEW IDEAS AND NEW MEASUREMENTS
  8. TWO FAR-REACHING DISCOVERIES
  9. THE NUCLEAR ATOM
  10. X-RAYS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE RIDDLE OF MATTER
  11. ATOMIC THEORY DEVELOPS
  12. WAVE MECHANICS
  13. NEW PARTICLES AND ATOMIC ACCELERATORS
  14. NEWER DEVELOPMENTS IN ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR THEORY
  15. NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND NUCLEAR ENERGY
  16. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

PART II

Chapters

  1. The Objectivity of Physics January 19, 2022 at 8:48 AM
  2. Matter, Void & the Force Field December 26, 2022 at 5:39 PM
  3. Substance and Mass December 27, 2022 at 1:31 PM
  4. The Nature of Electron & Charge December 28, 2022 at 6:07 AM
  5. The Spectrum of Substance December 28, 2022 at 12:00 PM
  6. Matter, Energy, Space and Time January 20, 2022 at 11:21 AM
  7. Thinning Out of Matter January 21, 2022 at 10:38 AM
  8. The Conservation of Force January 26, 2022 at 9:41 AM

APPENDIX

  1. Beginning Physics I
  2. Faraday: Electrical Conduction & Nature of Matter (January 25, 1844)
  3. Faraday: Thoughts on Ray Vibrations (April 15, 1846)
  4. Faraday: On the Conservation of Force (February 27, 1857)
  5. Faraday & Maxwell (November 13, 1857)
  6. Einstein’s 1920: Relativity
  7. Eddington’s 1927: The Nature of the Physical World
  8. Einstein’s 1938: The Evolution of Physics
  9. Einstein’s 1952 Appendix

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