Category Archives: Physics

The Dimension of “Mass”

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

A quantum was, at first, proposed as a mathematical concept by Max Planck that explained the distribution of the Black body radiation. It was a groundbreaking concept in the sense that it expressed energy as a function of frequency instead of amplitude of the waveform.

Einstein, in his groundbreaking paper on Light quanta, was able to show that the entropy of monochromatic radiation follows the same rules as the entropy of a perfect gas. Einstein thus showed that Planck’s postulate of energy quanta was more than a mathematical device. Light quanta had actual substantiality like a gas molecule.

A quantum of light has substantiality. That indicates mass of certain concentration.


Classical to the Quantum View

Newton’s corpuscular theory viewed light as having substance. The wave theory changed this view to light being energy of a wave traveling through a stationary aether. In wave theory the particles of medium oscillate about a stationary location and do not move with the wave. The energy of the wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave.

But this view encountered a major setback with Einstein’s theory of Light Quanta. Einstein showed that light approximated particle behavior, therefore, the medium of stationary aether was not required. The light energy was more like the kinetic energy of a particle—a function of mass and velocity. In the case of light, however, that “mass” was determined by a variable “frequency”.

The frequency of light represents a “mass concentration” that becomes denser as frequency increases.


Quanta as “Mass Particle”

A variable mass concentration based on frequency was a revolutionary concept, because matter has a constant mass concentration in terms of atoms. Einstein had difficulty in accepting the variability of mass concentration. He proposed a mass-energy equivalence as E = mc2 and declared quantum to be an “energy particle”. For Einstein, light did not have mass, because it did not have the same “mass concentration” as that in a material particle.

Einstein concludes in his 1905 paper on light quanta:

According to the assumption considered here, when a light ray starting from a point is propagated, the energy is not continuously distributed over an ever increasing volume, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localized in space, which move without being divided and which can be absorbed or emitted only as a whole.

But a particle can be treated as discrete in space only when it can be viewed as a point particle. A material particle can be viewed as a point particle because its mass can be treated as being concentrated at a center. That is called the center of mass. The uncertainty principle essentially says that a quantum particle does not have a center of mass because its location cannot be pinned down. In other words, as particles are continued to be divided, they lose their center of mass beyond a certain limit, and they merge into each other forming a fluid-like continuum.

Einstein’s conclusion about discreteness of quanta was based on the assumption of “constant concentration of mass” Einstein did not become aware of the inconsistency of his assumption because he conflated energy with mass. It is true that quantum can have discrete energy interactions, and that the concentration of mass could be so low that its significance can be appreciated in energy units only. But it is also true that there can be no concept of energy without an underlying concept of substance.

Unlike matter quanta has variable “mass concentration”. It is a fluid-like continuum with rapid intrinsic motion.


Variable Mass Concentration

In matter, mass has a concentration that we find in a neutron or a proton. These particles have a certain volume, but they may be treated as point particles because of their center of mass property. This property arises because of their rigid structure.

Mass is 1840 times less concentrated in an electron that makes the size of the electron about 1840 times larger than the size of the proton. An electron is no longer rigid, it does not have the center of mass property and it flows like a fluid. An electron cannot be treated like a point particle.

Mass is still less concentrated in a photon, and its size may be considered much larger than an electron. It flows more like a fluid without center of mass. Richard Feynman, in his book QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, shows calculations that treats light as such a fluid. Feynman, however, thinks of those calculated values as “probabilities” because he thought of photon as a “point particle”.

Mass, as it loses its concentration, becomes a fluid field, which is an actual reality as visualized by Faraday with his lines of force. Field is not just a mathematical reality as considered by Maxwell and Einstein. There is no limit to which the concentration of mass can be diluted as a field. The ultimate limit may be the gravitational field as “space”.

Current physics does not acknowledge the dimension of “mass” that exists at every location in space due to varying concentrations.


The Logic of Motion

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Matter is substance and so is light (see The Logic of Substance). A substance has substantiality. The measure of substantiality is given by mass concentration. We may use the word “substantiality” to mean mass concentration.

By substantiality we mean mass concentration.

As shown in the chapter on The Logic of Field, the range of substantiality (mass concentration) was extended greatly with the discovery of the nuclear and electronic regions in the atom. The substantiality of nucleus is greater than the substantiality of matter. The substantiality of electron, on the other hand, is many orders of magnitude less than the substantiality of matter.

We apply the term “mass” to matter, but when we consider particles like protons, neutrons and electrons, we assume the mass to be distributed throughout the volume of the particle. Hence, we are dealing with mass concentrationconcentration, or substantiality, at a location in space. We may, therefore, conclude:

A location in space has substantiality.


Substantiality and Energy

Einstein’s famous equation, E = mc2 shows the equivalence of mass and energy. It also shows that infinitesimal amount of mass is equivalent to a significant amount of energy because of the large multiplier c2. Therefore, an infinitesimal amount of mass may only be detectable as energy.

The mass of the electron field may be back calculated as E/c2, but it is so small a number that physics uses the equivalent energy value. to represent the substantiality of the electron field.

The presentation of substantiality of field in energy units has, unfortunately, contributed to conflating the traditional concepts of mass and energy. The energy units do not imply that field has no substance.

The substantiality is expressed in mass units, but, for fields, it may be expressed in energy units.


Intrinsic Motion

The agitation of gas molecules is an example of intrinsic motion. Another example is the Brownian motion. These particles move by themselves. There are no external forces acting on these particles. Another example of intrinsic motion is the rapid motion of electron field around the nucleus.

The intrinsic motion of a substance exists because of its intrinsic nature. Therefore, the intrinsic motion must depend on substantiality. We may say that the rapid motion of electron field around the nucleus exists because of the large substantiality differential between these two regions within the atom.

The intrinsic motion of light expresses itself as the speed of light. Therefore, the speed of light is also an expression of the substantiality of light.

Substance has intrinsic motion that depends on substantiality.


Speed & Mass Concentration

The more substantial is the substance the greater is its endurance, the longer it stays in a state, and the slower is its rate of intrinsic change. This is the case with solid matter. On the other hand, the less substantial is the substance, the lesser is its endurance, the shorter it stays in a state, and the faster is its rate of intrinsic change. The is the case with ephemeral light. Therefore

The rate of intrinsic change is inversely proportional to substantiality.

The rate of intrinsic change for light appears to be its motion in space. This motion is absolute because it does not depend on anything external to light for its existence or specific nature. From this perspective, the absolute motion of matter is close to zero because its rate of intrinsic change in space is extremely slow. Therefore

The rate of intrinsic change appears as absolute motion in space.

The absolute motion is very different from relative motions of objects. The speed of light is 3 x 108 meters/sec. This is a measure of absolute motion. The orbital speed of earth around the sun is about 3 x 104 meters/sec. This is a measure of relative motion. We cannot say that the speed of earth is 1/10,000 of the speed of light because this is not comparing the same type of motion. The absolute motion of earth is very likely even a smaller percentage of the speed of light.

We cannot compare relative speeds to the speed of light.

The speeds of material bodies and fields may only be compared in terms of their substantiality (mass concentration). This comparison is anticipated by the mass-energy equivalence. As the intrinsic mass is replaced by an equivalent amount of intrinsic energy, it has the effect of increasing the intrinsic motion of the substance. This may be demonstrated by the following sketch.

This leads to the conclusion that,

The intrinsic speed of substance is inversely proportional to its mass concentration.

The substantiality of electromagnetic field (EMF) is much less than the substantiality of the electronic region in the atom. Therefore, the EM field moves much more rapidly compared to the electron field.


Additional Conclusions

We may expect a material body to be fixed in its natural velocity in space. If it is forced to accelerate by the application of external force, it will return to its natural velocity when that force is removed. It will not continue to move at its accelerated velocity forever. This conclusion modifies what Newton proposed.

If a material object is continually accelerated by the application of a constant force (as in a gravitational field), then its substantiality decreases with acceleration. This change, however, may be imperceptible because of energy to mass ratio is c2 to 1.

Any substance at absolute rest must have infinite substantiality. Therefore, the substantiality of postulated stationary aether shall be infinite. We do not experience space being filled with a substance of infinite substantiality. Therefore, Einstein was correct in discarding the notion of stationary aether.

The substantiality of the EM field may be approximated by its frequency. Higher frequency would mean higher substantiality. We may, therefore, expect the velocity of the field substance to slightly decrease with increasing frequency.

The velocity of light is generally measured at the frequency of visible light. We assume on the basis of Maxwell’s theory that this velocity is the same throughout the EM spectrum. Maxwell’s theory assumes an aether of uniform substantiality as the medium throughout the EM spectrum. That may not be so.

The gravitational field is expected to have a substantiality much less than that of the EM Field. Therefore, the velocity of the gravitational field is expected to be higher than the velocity of light

Implications of the above on the special theory of relativity shall be covered later.


The Logic of Reality

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

As shown in the paper, Physics & Reality, the logic of reality depends on its consistency. A strange shift in reality occurred when Newton’s corpuscular theory of light was replaced by the wave theory of light. Light was no longer viewed as substance; instead it was viewed as energy that propagated through a hypothetical medium (substance) called aether.

The reality in physics shifted from “light is substance” to “light is energy”.

NOTE: A substance is anything that has impact on senses. That impact is sensed as force.


Young’s Interference Experiment

The wave theory of light was at first resisted because there was no medium in which a light wave could travel. But Newton’s corpuscular theory could not explain the overwhelming evidence of the wave characteristics of light.

According to Wikipedia:

Young’s interference experiment, also called Young’s double-slit interferometer, was the original version of the modern double-slit experiment, performed at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Thomas Young. This experiment played a major role in the general acceptance of the wave theory of light.

With the acceptance of wave theory, physics was forced to postulate a hypothetical stationary aether.

The demonstration of interference patterns of light led to the acceptance of wave theory over Newton’s corpuscular theory.


Particles versus Wave

The corpuscles of Newton’s theory were discrete; therefore, they could not be modeled into waves to explain the interference patterns. But a closer look tells us that these corpuscles cannot be discrete.

Material particles are discrete by the fact of their center of mass. Light particles do not have center of mass, and, therefore, they cannot be distinguished from each other. They must form a fluid-like continuum of substance that flows. Newton’s corpuscular theory incorrectly visualized light to be made up of discrete particles.

When corpuscles are modeled as a flowing, fluid substance, the objections to corpuscular theory go away. Light becomes capable of explaining the interference patterns of Young’s experiment, without requiring a medium.

When corpuscles are seen as fluid-like flowing substance, they are able to explain Young’s interference patterns.


Quantum Reality and Mathematics

This shift of light as energy has persisted through Maxwell’s theory, Einstein theory of relativity, Quantum mechanics and now QED (Quantum electrodynamics) even when the hypothetical aether has long been discarded. The illusion of light as energy has been kept alive by the accuracy of results from these mathematical theories.

In his book, QED, The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Richard Feynman takes up the difficult problem of partial reflection from glass surfaces. It has no satisfactory solution for light either as a discrete particle or as a continuous wave. So, QED has no choice but to resort to mathematical probability to explain the “strangeness of nature”.

But if we define light as a non-atomic fluid that has very low mass density and very high speed, the problem of partial reflection is resolved easily without thinking of the strangeness of nature. With this classical model one does not have to resort to mathematical probability to find a real answer.

Strangeness of reality comes from conflating energy with substance.


Future Possibility

The mathematical models of quantum physics have been successful in predicting physical phenomena in a certain narrow sense. It may be possible to reinterpret the mathematical symbolism of quantum physics without affecting those results.

By considering light to be a fluid-like, flowing, non-atomic substance we restore the consistency of reality. This consistency may spur just enough intuition to allow QED to successfully explain gravity and radioactivity as well.

The consistency in reality seems to spur intuition.


Physics & Reality

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

Our reality is determined by what we sense. We have five primary senses that we call physical and a mental sense that gives meaning to the physical senses. Logic and mathematics are part of the mental sense. The coordination among these six senses, such that there are no inconsistencies, determines the most optimum reality. See Objective & Subjective Reality.

To improve reality from a scientific perspective, we must locate inconsistencies in our scientific theories and resolve them.


Classical versus Quantum Reality

Currently, we have inconsistency between classical and quantum realities. There is a sudden discontinuity of reality from classical to quantum.

The starting concept in classical physics is SUBSTANCE. All other concepts are derived from the idea of substance. For example, kinetic energy is the motion of substance; potential energy is the tension of substance; momentum is the impact of substance.

The primary characteristic of this substance is mass. We can detect mass through our physical senses as “force”. This forms the basis of our classical reality. The concept of substance, however, stops at the idea of atom, which is considered to be indivisible.

The starting concept in quantum physics is the LIGHT QUANTUM. All other concepts seem to be borrowed from classical physics but presented as an extension of the idea of quantum. For example, quantum is defined as an “energy particle”, with no substance (mass). This jars our classical sensibilities. How can there be kinetic energy without any substance in motion? Or, how can there be potential energy without any substance in tension?

When we dig further, we find that, in quantum physics, the concept of substance is replaced by a Standard Model of Elementary Particles. But these particles do not have the classical characteristic of mass and volume. Instead, those characteristics are replaced by all manner of quantum numbers.

In Quantum physics, the reality of mass and volume of substance, is replaced by quantum numbers that can be sensed mentally (mathematically) only.

In other words, we no longer have our physical senses participating in the determination of quantum reality. This is the inconsistency that we are confronted with in physics today.


Resolving the Inconsistency

Our ideas of physical phenomena are based on our interactions with it. These interactions are perceived as FORCE by our physical and mental senses. These forces are interpreted as substance (mass) at the most basic level. This forms the basis of the classical reality.

If matter is substance then light is no less a substance, because both interact with our senses the same way. Newton’s corpuscular theory treated light as a substance that flowed very rapidly. Matter, being a substance, obviously had mass. Light was also a substance, but of ephemeral type, that had infinitesimal mass.

Quantum physics, on the other hand, drops the concept of substance (mass) beyond the idea of atom. Instead of mass, it employs a mathematical principle of “mass-energy equivalence” to define quantum as an “energy particle”.  Thus, quantum reality builds itself up on the basis of energy that consists of a mathematical interpretation of the physical forces of interactions that we sense. Light, therefore, is considered to have no mass.

The basis of classical reality is the interpretation of forces that interact with our senses as substance (mass). The basis of quantum reality is the interpretation of the same forces as a mathematical formulation of “energy”.

It may be possible to resolve the inconsistency in reality by relating this mathematical formulation of “energy” back to the concept of substance (mass).


The Sructure of Electron

ReferenceA Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

There is quite a bit of experimental data obtained about the phenomenon that is referred to as a single electron. But all this data is mathematical. Problem lies in interpreting this data with proper reality.


Particle or Wave

We are not even sure if the electron is a particle or a wave. On this determination depends the correct interpretation of the rest of data about electron. Mathematical numbers don’t mean much even if you give them the labels like spin, charge, etc., because none of these labels have been clearly defined.

The problem lies in the fact that “substance” is defined for matter only and not for the constituents of the atom of matter. The substance of atom is thought of as having a constant density. It is supposed that there is no substance if it doesn’t meet certain arbitrary criterion of density as “matter”.

The fact of the matter is that the substance can have decreasing density without limit. Substance starts out as atomic matter; but it acts more like a non-atomic fluid inside the atom as its density decreases. This is the case with the electronic substance.


Particle is the Substance

An electron is not rigid and structured like the nucleus. The substance density of electron is 1840th of the proton or the neutron. The electron as a “particle” is moving very fast and its center of mass cannot be determined. Since there is no center of mass to differntiate electrons as particles, all electrons form a fluid-like continuum that is flowing extremely fast.

A very fast flowing fluid acquires wave-like characteristics. This answers the wave-particle question about the electron. An electron is a particle because it has substance. It does not necessarily exist as a discrete (single) particle in space.


Energy is the Waving Substance

All interactions in chemistry or in quantum mechanics have precise energy values. This discreteness of energy values does not mean that substances involved are discrete particles in space. Therefore, a continuum of electronic fluid can have discrete energy values of interactions.

Discrete value of interaction is what Einstein called “energy particle”. This doesn’t mean that electrons and photons are discrete entities in space. Both electrons and photons form a continuum of substance as a non-atomic fluid, yet they have discrete energy values of interaction.

This wave-particle confusion has been the greatest inconsistency in the science of physics. It arises because of the substance-energy confusion as outlined above. Unfortumately, this confusion entered the science through Einstein’s 1905 paper on Liqht Quanta, where he said,

“According to the assumption considered here, when a light ray starting from a point is propagated, the energy is not continuously distributed over an ever increasing volume, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta, localised in space, which move without being divided and which can be absorbed or emitted only as a whole.”


Einstein’s Real Discovery

The most important discovery of Einstein is that light is not a motion in some arbitrarily considered stationary aether; instead light is a substance that is moving at an extremely rapid rate. It is this extreme rapid movement, which imparts wave characteristics to light and electrons.

Light is an extremely fast moving waving substance.