Category Archives: Physics Book

Universe & Inertia


Reference: Disturbance Theory


The universe is the superset of everything that exists. There is no awareness beyond the universe. We may only speculate what is beyond the universe. When we become aware of something new we see it as part of this universe. We do not see it as “beyond this universe”.

We may only speculate about what may be beyond the universe; but we can never know that. All that we are aware of, know about, or speculate upon, is part of this universe. This boundary of this universe is thus determined by awareness. Beyond this universe there is simply non-awareness.

The universe consists of awareness. The awareness may be divided into perception and speculation. The perception may be divided into matter, energy, space, and time.

Space is the vast three-dimensional expanse within which energy acts and matter exists. Undisturbed space forms a reference point for this universe both physically and metaphysically.

Physically, the reference point of space is the absence of INERTIA. Inertia is the property of disturbed space. Space is disturbed by TIME. This results in MOTION. Motion is balanced by inertia to appear as uniform speed. The basic motion consists of interchanging electrical and magnetic fields. The frequency of this interchange generates an electromagnetic spectrum.

Inertia in this universe provides a counterbalance to motion.

Metaphysically, the reference point of space is the absence of AWARENESS. Awareness are the property of disturbed space. Space is disturbed by DESIRE. This results in EMOTION. Emotion is balanced by awareness to appear as uniform tone. The basic emotion consists of interchanging perception and recognition fields. The frequency of this interchange generates a spectrum of emotions or tones.

Awareness in this universe provides a counterbalance to emotion.

This description of awareness is objective and it undercuts highly complex human awareness. It is the property of disturbed space from which everything else is derived. Human awareness is a very complex version of this.

This description of awareness is probably more applicable to the phenomena observed at the sub-atomic level of Quantum Mechanics.


Newton’s Laws of Motion & Inertia


Reference: Disturbance Theory


Newton’s First Law states, “Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.”

  • The electromagnetic radiation propagates forward as it forms itself in space. That is how disturbance advances—one wavelength at a time.
  • The product of permeability and permittivity represent the resistance to the formation of electromagnetic field.
  • The complexity of the field being formed may also add to the resistance. Here the field being formed in all its complex detail may be represented by frequency.
  • When we combine the equations, m = E/c2; E = hf; and c = 1/√(με),we get m = h (fμε). Permeability and permittivity are constant for space. Thus inertia seems to increase imperceptibly with frequency. Only in the gamma range the effect of frequency becomes perceptible.
  • Undisturbed space shall have no inertia. Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation shall have inertia as the product of permeability and permittivity of space. As structure is introduced for particles in the gamma range, their inertia becomes still greater.
  • With structure, both “frequency” and “wavelength” become complex, and the relationship among frequency, period and wavelength shall become a superposition of a large number of complex cycles. Therefore, the propagation may also become non-linear at higher frequency like “eddies” in a flow.
  • The increasing inertia may measure the increasing complexity of electromagnetic structure being formed. The primary complexity shall be the rotation of disturbance.
  • The speed of quantum particles is a fraction of the speed of light. The only reason for this would be increased inertia due to complexity of the particles.
  • With increased inertia the speed of particles as “disturbance” reduces. The smaller is the inertia, the greater is the velocity as exemplified by light. The greater is the inertia, the smaller is the velocity as exemplified by massive bodies.
  • There are different “uniform speeds without acceleration” due to inertia balancing the forces. There shall be different uniform speeds for different inertia. Each uniform speed may be referred to as the “state of rest”.
  • The Theory of Relativity believes that everything is relative to everything else and there is no absolute reference point of rest. But we can have a reference point in terms of “no inertia and infinite uniform speed” with the “uniform speed” decreasing as inertia increases. The reference point of “no inertia and infinite uniform speed” would then be THE UNDISTURBED SPACE.

Newton’s Second Law states, “The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.”

  • There seems to be a natural tendency for disturbance in space to spread. It is simply suppressed by inertia. It is almost like a spring. The lesser is the inertia against disturbance the faster it expands.
  • The “uniform motion” seems to decrease with increase in resistance (inertia). This inertia is internal, but it seems to act as “motive force impressed”.
  • “Uniform motion” seems to be inversely proportional to inertia.

Newton’s Third Law states, “To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.”

  • The inertia is always equal and opposite to the natural motion of the disturbance.

Newton’s Laws apply to a level of inertia corresponding to matter. Here structure has become so complex that both wavelength and period have become infinitesimal and give impression of absolute space and time.

Newton’s Laws of motion do not apply to the level of inertia of the electromagnetic fields where wavelength and period are not infinitesimal.

Thus, the Newton’s Laws of motion are not independent of inertia.

The vector addition supported by Newton’s Laws of motion applies to a level of inertia corresponding to matter. The vector addition does not apply to velocities of matter and electromagnetic radiation that are very far apart in their level of inertia.

Where the levels of inertia are far apart by many orders of magnitude, the vector addition is replaced by relativistic addition.

Inertial frames considered in the theory of relativity all have inertia of the same order of magnitude as matter. The relativistic addition works because the difference in their inertia of the inertial frames may be assumed to be negligible when compared to the difference in inertia with that of light.


The EM Spectrum & Inertia


Reference: Disturbance Theory


From Wikipedia:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a collective term; referring to the entire range and scope of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective, associated photon wavelengths.

This spectrum seems to be flanked by SPACE at the lower end, and MASS at the upper end. As an example, the atom can be seen as consisting of many frequencies of the EM spectrum. Space lies beyond its outer boundary, and mass makes up its center.

From Wikipedia:

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-, and gamma radiation.

The electromagnetic radiation must form itself continually in each cycle in order to propagate. These cycles of formation have a much higher frequency at the upper end of the spectrum than at the lower end.

Permittivity (ε) is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium. Permeability (μ) is a measure of how easily a magnetic field can pass through a medium. For space, permittivity is ε0, and permeability is μ0 Therefore, the formation of the electromagnetic field in space faces a resistance equal to (μ0ε0).

The rate of formation of electromagnetic field in space is finite. Therefore, the rate of propagation of light in space is also finite. This is the speed of light, c = 3 x 108 meters per second. There is relationship between the resistance to formation and the rate of propagation of light. This relationship is:

c = 1/√(μ0ε0).

The resistance to the formation of light is a form of inertia. Newton’s defines inertia in his book “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” as follows:

The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.

If there were no resistance to the formation of light, the speed of light shall be infinite.

The resistance “μ0ε0”represents the inertia of the electromagnetic radiation in space.

Inertia, therefore, is a phenomenon of the interaction between disturbance and space. In short, inertia depends on the nature of interaction between time and space. The units of “μ0ε0 are s2/m2.

An electromagnetic “wave cycle” consists of a back and forth interchange between electric and magnetic fields. Here each field acts as the potential of the other field and they manifest alternately.

As frequency increases the electromagnetic disturbance ceases to be simple wavelike. It may no longer be represented by a sine function, which looks like the ripples on the surface of a pond. Instead inetrference and cross currents start to appear.

The increase in the complexity of the disturbance leads to increase in inertia. The complexity becomes significant only in the gamma range. Here we may combine the equations, m = E/c^2E = hf; and c = 1/√(με) to get m = h (fμε). Thus, mass is proportional to the product of frequency, permeability and permittivity, at least in the sub-atomic range. In this range, the electromagnetic radiation loses its “laminar” flow and “eddies” start to appear. These eddies are recognized as the particles of Quantum Mechanics.

Most of these particles have very short lives. As these eddies develop into stable vortices, we get particles like electrons, protons and neutrons. These particles manifest inertia as mass.


The Electromagnetic spectrum reduces to undisturbed space as frequency goes to zero. Undisturbed space has no inertia. We may use this state of space as the reference point.

Inertia seems to enter the picture with the disturbance of space. We may look at the electromagnetic phenomenon as disturbed space.  The electromagnetic spectrum is a spectrum of disturbed space.

As the frequency of this disturbance increases, its complexity also increases, and so does the inertia. Toward the upper end of the spectrum, where the frequency is very high, the inertia starts to manifest itself as mass of particles.

This spectrum of disturbed space is visible from the outer boundary of the atom to the nucleus at the center of the atom. We can thus see the inertia increasing from the boundary of the atom to its center.


Calculation of Disturbance Level


Reference: Disturbance Theory


De Broglie Equation,       λ = h/(mv)

Speed of light,                 c = f λ

and,                                 c = 3 x 108 m/s

and,                                  h = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s


Therefore, the frequency associated with an object would be

Frequency,                        f = c/λ

or,                                      f = cmv/h

or,                                      f = (4.528 x 1041) (mv)


Therefore, the disturbance level associated with an object would be

Disturbance level,              DL = (log f) / (log 2)

or,                                       DL = (3.322) log f


Disturbance Level of the earth

m = 5.972 x 1024 kg

v = 3 x 104 m/s

f = 8.112 x 1070

DL (earth) = 235.6


Disturbance Level of the sun

m = 1.989 x 1030 kg

v = 2 x 105 m/s

f = 1.801 x 1077

DL (sun) = 256.6


Validity of Lorentz Transformation

Lorentz derivation

Reference: Disturbance Theory


From Wikipedia,

“Historically, the transformations were the result of attempts by Lorentz and others to explain how the speed of light was observed to be independent of the reference frame.”

The null results from Michelson-Morley’s experiment in 1887 led to the belief that the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames. For example, light is observed to have the same speed, c = 3 x 108, meters/second, relative to the earth and also to the sun, even when earth is moving at a speed 3 x 104 meters/second relative to the sun.

It is possible to show theoretically that the earth has a speed relative to “aether”, which is the reference frame of no inertia as represented by space. However, this speed is so small that no experiment so far has been able to measure it directly. See Michelson-Morley’s Null Result.

But the actual problem lies in combining the speeds that belong to particles, such as, light particles and the earth, which have a difference in inertia of many orders of magnitude. The vector algebra works only with particles or bodies that have inertia of similar orders of magnitude.

Lorentz transformation was an effort to resolve this anomaly, where velocities could not be simply added or subtracted per vector algebra. The following links provide the derivation of Lorentz transformation.

Reference from Khan Academy

Reference from Yale University

Lorentz Boost

The derivation of Lorentz transformation is based on the following assumptions.

Assumption #1: The speed of light is the same in all inertial systems.

Based on Michelson-Morley’s experiment, the speed of light of 3 x 108 meters/second was not affected by the velocity of the earth, which is 3 x 104 meters/second relative to the sun. This velocity of the earth is 1/10,000 of the speed of light. The “v/c ratios” of most material bodies in the universe are of the same order. Therefore, this assumption is good for a “v/c ratio” of 1/10,000 or less.

Lorentz transformations may not be valid for “v/c ratios” that are much greater than 1/10,000 and close to 1, as found at the sub-stomic level.

Assumption #2: The gamma “fudge” factor is the same for observers in different inertial systems.

In this cosmos, each body is drifting in space under a balance of forces. These forces depend on the inertia of the body. Therefore, the inertial systems are not exactly alike, and we cannot assume the gamma factor to be the same for them.

However, this assumption is good as long as the difference in inertia among these systems is much less compared to their difference in inertia with light.

Lorentz transformations may not be valid for motion of particles with inertia much less than the inertia of earth and closer to the inertia of light, as is the case with sub-atomic particles.

Lorentz transformations are at the heart of special relativity. Therefore, these limitations apply to special relativity as well.