Category Archives: Physics Book

The Disturbance Theory

dl10c

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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On June 9th, 1952, Einstein stated in the preface of the 15th edition of his “Relativity–The Special and General Theory”,

“In this edition I have added, as a fifth appendix, a presentation of my views on the problem of space in general and on the gradual modifications of our ideas on space resulting from the influence of the relativistic viewpoint. I wished to show that space-time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality. Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept of “empty space” loses is meaning.”

The Disturbance Theory is based on the postulate that space, when disturbed, breaks into electric and magnetic fields. In other words, when space and time come together they transform into energy of disturbance. This transition is seamless, meaning that space, time and energy are intimately related. They show up as wavelength, period and frequency of the disturbance.

The electromagnetic spectrum represents increasing state of disturbance, which ranges from low frequency radio waves to high frequency gamma rays. The disturbance starts to condense in the range of gamma rays until it transforms into matter. In this sense, space, time, energy and matter are fundamentally related.

All stages of the electromagnetic spectrum may be found in the structure of an atom, if we consider the atomic boundary to extend all the way to space. The most condensed disturbance forms the nucleus of the atom.

Atoms may be looked upon as tiny whirlpools in the sea of electromagnetic field of disturbed space.

The above shows that not only space, time and energy are intimately related, the energy appears as mass at very high disturbance levels.

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The Disturbance Levels

The undisturbed space has no bounds or form. It acquires a form only when it is disturbed. The disturbance appears as a dynamic electromagnetic field that has gradients of disturbance levels. A gradient of disturbance levels has the form of acceleration, force or gravity. Within a uniform disturbance level there is stillness or constant velocity.

The disturbance levels are defined by their wavelength, period and frequency. The wavelength and period maintain a constant ratio ‘c’. The frequency is the inverse of period. This may be shown symbolically as

λ / T  = c

f = 1/T

Where,   λ is the wavelength associated with space;

               T is the period associated with time;

               c is a universal constant referred to as speed of light;

 and,       f is the frequency associated with energy

The electromagnetic spectrum covers a large range of frequencies as radio and micro waves, infra-red, visible and ultra-violet light, X and Gamma ionizing radiation, and subatomic particles. These frequencies may be expressed more conveniently on a logarithmic scale of base 2. The logarithmic form of frequency is referred to as Disturbance Level (D).

D = log2 (f)

DL-Freq

DL Chart1

So we have a fundamental relationship among space, time, energy and matter.

By equating space-time with energy-mass, the Disturbance Theory hopes to bring about an interpretation that makes the theory of relativity consistent with quantum mechanics and Newton’s theory of motion.

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Space, Time & Reality

We live on a material plane, and so we view space, time and energy from the viewpoint of matter. Our reality is the fact of matter.

Matter appears at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is highly condensed disturbance. If we look at the wavelength of disturbance as the unit of space, it is infinitesimal at the level of matter. Similarly, the unit of time as period of disturbance is also infinitesimal at the level of matter. This makes the calculus of space and time possible. But this is so at the level of matter only and not at other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. There is continuity at disturbance levels lower than matter but it is of a different sort. At these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum the wavelength and period is finite and the  reality can be very different, but we do not get to experience it ordinarily.

We live on earth. We are connected to matter all the time. Therefore, we perceive space and time in infinitesimal increments. This brings smoothness of continuity to our physical senses. It forms the basis of our knowledge. Euclidean geometry and Newtonian mechanics has its basis in it.

But how is it out in the interstellar space? How does one experience space and time away from matter—even away from the matter of the spaceship that carried us there, or away from the matter that constitutes our bodies? What is space and time like when its units in terms of wavelength and period are no longer infinitesimal?

How do we visualize an electromagnetic field spread over vast interstellar space in which finite wavelength, period and frequency are changing dynamically. Here the gradients in frequencies bring about the sense of acceleration, force or gravity. It is like living within Faraday’s lines of force that come together, and then spread out in an eternal cosmic dance.

Like a blurred vision, the location in space and time gets blurred far from material surface of a planet. A location can be defined with pin-point precision on a material surface only. The GPS signals that travel to a satellite and back require relativistic correction. This is because the location of satellite is a bit blurred relative to the locations on earth.

The theory of relativity gets it right about the blurring of the very nature of space and time.

Dark energy and matter in the interstellar space has no reasonable explanation at the moment. The concept of disturbed space might be able to provide an explanation.

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Mathematics

Relativistic mathematics of Einstein is based on MRF (material reference frame). The Disturbance Theory proposes mathematics based on SRF (space reference frame).  SRF math is yet to be developed. It should lead to similar space-time correction.

MRF math uses the concept of velocity, which is applicable only for a specialized view of space and time near the surfaces of planets.

SRF math shall use the concept of disturbance levels, instead of velocity.

The concept of disturbance level is applicable to all locations near or far from planets.

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The Inertial Frame and Space

Observable_universe_logarithmic_illustration

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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The Inertial Frame

In 1632, Galileo Galilei first described that in a ship travelling at constant velocity, without rocking, on a smooth sea; any observer doing experiments below the deck would not be able to tell whether the ship was moving or stationary. This is a nice description of an inertial frame.

An inertial frame is one in which Newton’s first law remains true. In other words, in this frame, an object stays either at rest or at a constant velocity unless a force acts on it. A non-inertial frame shall be experienced inside an accelerating rocket. In this frame Newton’s first law will not hold true.

In short, all inertial frames are in a state of constant, straight line motion with zero acceleration. Measurements in one inertial frame can be converted to the measurements in another by a simple transformation.

For example, suppose two cars are moving side by side at the speed of 60 mph in the same direction. The driver of each car will see the other car to be practically still. The speed of a car relative to the other would be the “algebraic difference” of their speeds: 60 – 60 = 0. If the two cars were approaching each other at 60 mph, a driver will see the other car approaching at 120 mph [60 – (–60) = 120].

NOTE: The individual speeds would have to be measured in a common reference frame for the above transformation to be valid.

This simple transformation shall also apply to the relative speed of disturbances moving through a medium. Here the medium stays still while the disturbance moves through it. The speed of the disturbance relative to the medium is determined by the properties of the medium.

For example, suppose a ripple on the surface of water moves at speed, R based on the properties of water. We see two ripples approaching each other, each moving on the surface of water at speed R toward the other. Their relative speed shall be: R – (–R) = 2R. The transformation is the same as in the case of cars in the previous example, because individual speeds are measured in a common reference frame.

Sound travels in dry air at 20°C at a speed of 343 meters per second. If two waves of sound are approaching each other, their relative speed shall be 343 x 2 = 686 meters per second. This is because the medium in which these waves are traveling provides a common reference frame. By no means is this relative speed “supersonic”, because this speed is not relative to the medium.

If two beams of light were approaching each other in a medium that provided a common inertial frame, similar consideration shall apply. In other words, their relative speed shall be “2c” where c is the speed of light. This shall not violate the limit placed by the medium on the speed of light.

In the 19th century a medium called “luminiferous ether” was postulated for light, but it could not be found. The absence of a medium resulted in the assumption that the relative speed of two light beams approaching each other would also be ‘c’ instead of ‘2c’. This resulted in a mathematics that led to the strange ideas of ‘length contraction’ and ‘time dilation’.

Why couldn’t we find any medium for light? Were we looking for the wrong thing?

 

The Ether

In 1873, Maxwell’s effort to determine the relationship between electromagnetic theories and the Newton’s theory of motion resulted in the amazing discovery that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon.

Maxwell wrote in the preface to the first edition of his book A TREATISE ON ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM:

“The most important aspect of any phenomenon from a mathematical point of view is that of a measurable quantity… I have therefore thought that a treatise would be useful which should have for its principal object to take up the whole subject in a methodical manner, and which should also indicate how each part of the subject is brought within the reach of methods of verification by actual measurement… before I began the study of electricity I resolved to read no mathematics on the subject till I had first read through Faraday’s Experimental Researches in Electricity.

“As I proceeded with the study of Faraday, I perceived that his method of conceiving the phenomena was also a mathematical one, though not exhibited in the conventional form of mathematical symbols. I also found that these methods were capable of being expressed in the ordinary mathematical forms, and thus compared with those of the professed mathematicians.

“For instance, Faraday, in his mind’s eye, saw lines of force traversing all space where the mathematicians saw centres of force attracting at a distance: Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distance: Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions going on in the medium, they were satisfied that they had found it in a power of action at a distance impressed on the electric fluids.

“When I had translated what I considered to be Faraday’s ideas into a mathematical form, I found that in general the results of the two methods coincided, so that the same phenomena were accounted for, and the same laws of action deduced by both methods, but that Faraday’s methods resembled those in which we begin with the whole and arrive at the parts by analysis, while the ordinary mathematical methods were founded on the principle of beginning with the parts and building up the whole by synthesis.”

It is interesting to note that Maxwell finds Faraday’s “lines of force traversing all space” to be mathematically equivalent to other mathematician’s “centers of force attracting at a distance”. Maxwell notes, “Faraday saw a medium where they [other mathematicians] saw nothing but distance”.

Space is not “nothing” because it has the electromagnetic properties of permittivity and permeability. These properties of space determine the speed of light per Maxwell’s equations. This fact alone should be enough to convince that space is the medium through which light travels.

Why is space not considered to be the medium of light? Why can’t the mysterious ether be space itself?

The answer to this question seems to be tied with the mystery of inertia. Neither space nor light seem to exhibit the property of inertia. Therefore, we cannot apply the considerations of the inertial frame to space and light.

 

The Inertia

Let’s make the following postulate. It is a reasonable postulate.

“Space, when disturbed, breaks into electric and magnetic fields.”

This is similar to the observation that water, when disturbed breaks into peaks and valleys; or air, when disturbed, breaks into high and low pressure areas.

In case of the ripple in water we see the movement of peaks and valleys, but not that of water. In case of sound we see the movement of high and low pressure, but not that of air. We may say that in case of light we see the movement of electric and magnetic fields but not that of space itself.

How does this compare with the 19th century consideration of “luminiferous ether”?

The “luminiferous ether” was assumed to be rigid to electromagnetic wave of light. If light were a disturbance in space, we can see this disturbance to propagate when changing electric field generates a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic field generates an electric field. The problem of ether being rigid to electromagnetic wave of light is thus resolved.

The “luminiferous ether” was also assumed to be completely permeable to matter. Is this true? Doesn’t matter encounter resistance when pushed through space? What is inertia?

By light, we don’t just mean the visible light. It refers to the whole electromagnetic spectrum from low frequency radio waves to very high frequency gamma rays. We may understand the nature of this spectrum better by looking at the structure of atom.

Gamma rays are produced in the disintegration of the nucleus of an atom. This nucleus is surrounded by electrons. Beyond these electrons is electromagnetic field, and beyond that field is space. From space to the nucleus of an atom we seem to have the whole electromagnetic spectrum.

The electromagnetic spectrum represents an increasingly disturbed space. The nucleus of an atom then represents a highly disturbed state of space that appears as mass.

We can now see that the movement of mass through space shall require undisturbed space to suddenly go to a highly disturbed space. This would create a resistance. This resistance may explain the mystery of inertia. The higher is the mass, the greater would be this resistance, and the greater is inertia.

Space is not completely permeable to matter. The resistance of space to matter is observed as inertia.

There is an illusion of space being permeable to matter because we see matter gliding through space. But matter is “gliding through space” only when it is either still or moving at a constant velocity relative to other matter. The fact is matter “gliding through space” is not moving through space. It is moving through space only when it is accelerating.

Matter may be conceived to be moving at the velocity of light relative to a light wave; but if matter is not accelerating, it is actually standing still relative to space.

 

The Space Reference Frame

When we look at space as the medium of light we no longer need the relativistic math developed by Einstein. We can apply the classical inertial frame to understand that two light beams approaching each other shall have the relative velocity of ‘2c’; and this shall not violate the limit on ‘c’ as the universal constant.

The universal constant ‘c’ may be seen as the ratio of the wavelength of light to its period. This connects space to time in the domain of electromagnetic field. This is true even in the domain of matter, but it not so obvious because wavelength and period of “disturbed space” are both infinitesimal in that domain. Thus space and time appear to be absolute and independent in the domain of matter but that is not really the case.

The inertial frame of Galileo and Newton represents a special case of a more general inertial frame where space and time are related by the universal constant ‘c’.

The inertial frame of Galileo and Newton identifies matter as the basis of the observer. It may be referred to as the Material Reference Frame (MRF). The more general inertial frame identifies space as the basis of the observer. We may refer to it as the Space Reference Frame (SRF).

The general inertial frame (SRF) is consistent with all of physics. It also provides a much more elegant explanation for INERTIA.

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Obsolete: The Space Reference Frame (SRF)

See: BOOK: The Disturbance Theory

Spectrum

Reference: Disturbance Theory

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We are used to looking at space and time from the perspective of matter. Galileo, Newton and even Einstein launched their theories using a material reference frame. When Einstein looked at space and time closely he started to realize that a more fundamental basis than matter was space-time.

To study space and time from the viewpoint of matter is backwards. Space and time are more fundamental. They have no inertia, whereas matter has inertia.  It is more logical to study matter from the basis of space and time. Attempts of the theory of relativity to study space and time from a material basis has led to strange concepts, such as, “length contraction” and “time dilation”. Both Inertial and Non-inertial reference frames have a material basis. We may categorize them as material reference frame (MRF).

If Einstein had lived longer he, definitely, would have developed a non-material reference frame based on field to understand space, time, energy and matter. Such a reference frame would devoid of inertia. We may call such a basis the space reference frame (SRF). It is interesting to note that the moment we shift our basis from MRF to SRF, the strangeness associated with space and time disappears.

Space has no inertia, but something is there. We know that the speed of a wave is determined by the properties of the medium in which it is traveling; and not by its frequency or wavelength. Maxwell determined that the speed of light could be determined by the electromagnetic properties in pure space.

But the problem was the belief that a medium without inertia was not possible. A very fine medium with material like properties was postulated in late 19th century to explain light as a wave. It was called “ether”. However. “ether” was found not to exist by the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. This led to Einstein’s theory of relativity.

The theory of relativity acknowledges the constant speed of light in space. It even acknowledges the electromagnetic nature of light. Furthermore, it implies that matter is “condensation” of electromagnetic energy per the equation E = mc2. But it continues to measure the speed of light using matter as its reference frame.

Can inertia-less space be used as the reference frame?

By light, we don’t just mean the visible light. It refers to the whole electromagnetic spectrum from low frequency radio waves to very high frequency gamma rays. The question arises, “How low can the frequency of electromagnetic radiation go? Can it go all the way down to zero? What does that imply? Does the electromagnetic phenomenon arise due to a disturbance of space? ”

The moment we consider that the electromagnetic phenomenon emanates from space rather than from matter it becomes possible to use space as the reference frame. This is the basis of the Disturbance Theory.

The Disturbance Theory postulates that space breaks into electric and magnetic fields when disturbed.

The electromagnetic phenomenon as “disturbance of space” has a large range of frequencies and wavelengths. This range is represented by the electromagnetic spectrum consisting of radio waves, microwaves, infra-red light, visible light, ultra-violet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. Since the spectrum extends over a very large range of frequencies, it may be managed more conveniently as Disturbance Levels on a logarithmic scale of base 2 (similar to octaves).

 

Disturbance Level                 Frequency

                0                                  20 or 1

                1                                  21 or 2

                2                                  22 or 4

                3                                  23 or 8

                …                                 …

                n                                 2n

 

DL-Freq

 

The disturbance levels of some of the electromagnetic frequencies and particles are as follows

     EM Frequency                 Disturbance Level

Visible light ……………….. ~ 49.0  

Gamma Rays ……………… ~ 65.0

Electron ………………………. 66.7

Proton ………………………… 77.6

Neutron ……………………….. 77.6

Earth…………………………~ 235.6

If the Electromagnetic spectrum originates from space then it seems to end in “matter”. This seems to be evident as we look at the structure of the atom. Let’s visualize walking from the center of atom outwards towards its boundary.

At the center of the atom we find the nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons. The disturbance levels of these nucleons are in upper gamma range. When this nucleus is disturbed it emits gamma rays. Here we seem to be looking at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum as “matter”.

Immediately surrounding the nucleus is the region of electrons. The disturbance level of electrons is at the beginning of the gamma range. There is a high gradient (large step change) of disturbance levels from the electrons to the nucleons. This probably points to a sharply defined boundary of the nucleus separating it from the electronic region.

Immediately surrounding the electronic region of the atom there seems to be an electromagnetic field.  This is similar to the electric field surrounding an electron. Again there is a high gradient of disturbance levels from the electromagnetic field to the electronic region. This probably describes the boundary of the atom.

The electromagnetic field continues beyond the atom and lessens in its disturbance levels until it becomes the space itself. This way the whole electromagnetic spectrum from space to matter seems to be demonstrated in the structure of the atom.

Atoms thus appear like tiny whirlpools of electromagnetic phenomenon in space when we visualize them in the space reference frame (SRF).

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Physics: The Disturbance Theory

SL5

Reference: KHTK Physics
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BOOK: THE DISTURBANCE THEORY

Preface:

Chapter 1: The Inertial Frame and Space

Chapter 2: The Disturbance Theory

Chapter 3: COMMENTS: Einstein’s 1905 Paper On Relativity (Part 1)

Chapter 4: COMMENTS: Einstein’s 1905 Paper on Relativity (Part 2)

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