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From Wikipedia:

*The ***electromagnetic spectrum** is a collective term; referring to the entire range and scope of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective, associated *photon* *wavelengths.*

This spectrum seems to be flanked by SPACE at the lower end, and MASS at the upper end. As an example, the atom can be seen as consisting of many frequencies of the EM spectrum. Space lies beyond its outer boundary, and mass makes up its center.

From Wikipedia:

*In physics, ***electromagnetic radiation** (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-, and gamma radiation.

The electromagnetic radiation must form itself continually in each cycle in order to propagate. These cycles of formation have a much higher frequency at the upper end of the spectrum than at the lower end.

Permittivity (ε) is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium. Permeability (μ) is a measure of how easily a magnetic field can pass through a medium. For space, permittivity is ε_{0}, and permeability is μ_{0} Therefore, the formation of the electromagnetic field in space faces a resistance equal to (μ_{0}ε_{0}).

The rate of formation of electromagnetic field in space is finite. Therefore, the rate of propagation of light in space is also finite. This is the speed of light, c = 3 x 10^{8} meters per second. There is relationship between the resistance to formation and the rate of propagation of light. This relationship is:

**c = 1/****√(μ**_{0}ε_{0}).

The resistance to the formation of light is a form of inertia. Newton’s defines inertia in his book “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” as follows:

*The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.*

If there were no resistance to the formation of light, the speed of light shall be infinite.

**The resistance “μ**_{0}ε_{0}”represents the inertia of the electromagnetic radiation in space.

Inertia, therefore, is a phenomenon of the interaction between disturbance and space. In short, inertia depends on the nature of interaction between time and space. The units of “**μ**_{0}ε_{0}” are s^{2}/m^{2}.

An electromagnetic “wave cycle” consists of a back and forth interchange between electric and magnetic fields. Here each field acts as the potential of the other field and they manifest alternately.

As frequency increases the electromagnetic disturbance ceases to be simple wavelike. It may no longer be represented by a sine function, which looks like the ripples on the surface of a pond. Instead inetrference and cross currents start to appear.

The increase in the complexity of the disturbance leads to increase in inertia. The complexity becomes significant only in the gamma range. Here we may combine the equations, **m =** **E/c^2**; **E = hf**; and **c = 1/√(με) **to get **m = h (fμε)**. Thus, mass is proportional to the product of frequency, permeability and permittivity, at least in the sub-atomic range. In this range, the electromagnetic radiation loses its “laminar” flow and “eddies” start to appear. These eddies are recognized as the particles of Quantum Mechanics.

Most of these particles have very short lives. As these eddies develop into stable vortices, we get particles like electrons, protons and neutrons. These particles manifest inertia as mass.

## SUMMARY

The Electromagnetic spectrum reduces to undisturbed space as frequency goes to zero. Undisturbed space has no inertia. We may use this state of space as the reference point.

Inertia seems to enter the picture with the disturbance of space. We may look at the electromagnetic phenomenon as disturbed space. The electromagnetic spectrum is a spectrum of disturbed space.

As the frequency of this disturbance increases, its complexity also increases, and so does the inertia. Toward the upper end of the spectrum, where the frequency is very high, the inertia starts to manifest itself as mass of particles.

This spectrum of disturbed space is visible from the outer boundary of the atom to the nucleus at the center of the atom. We can thus see the inertia increasing from the boundary of the atom to its center.

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