Category Archives: Physics

Is the Universe Finite?

universe

Reference: Disturbance Theory

.

Einstein, in his lecture of January 27, 1921, GEOMETRY AND EXPERIENCE, made a case for the universe being finite. He uses the postulates of his theory of relativity to make his point. The Disturbance theory provides a much simpler reasoning for making the same point as follows.

Per the Disturbance theory, the whole universe may be described in terms of disturbance. Most of the disturbance may be described by the electromagnetic spectrum. The Disturbance theory adds “Emptiness” for zero frequency at the bottom of the spectrum. It also adds matter at the upper end of the spectrum beyond gamma range.

Space describes the dimensions of the electromagnetic field and matter. At zero frequency there is neither field nor matter; and no space either. There is only emptiness, which is absence of all substance. Space and time describe the dimensions of substance. They don’t exist in the absence of substance.

The universe consists of the disturbance spectrum that describes both field and matter. The core of the universe is made up of matter, and it is bounded by zero frequency of emptiness. The universe is, therefore, finite. Beyond the universe is emptiness of no matter, no field, no space, no time, and no awareness.

.

The Limitation of Einstein’s Theory

disturbance

Reference: Disturbance Theory

.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum happens to provide us with a universal range of physical substance. It presents to us a scale of inertia. Matter is a very special condition that exists at the upper end of this scale. The scale starts at the lower end with a theoretical state of emptiness of zero inertia.

The electromagnetic spectrum is a scale of inertia from emptiness to matter.

Like on any scale, the range of physical substance can best be understood from the reference point of zero inertia. However, this may create a great confusion because we are so used to looking at everything from the viewpoint of matter.

Our view of universe as “material” has been very narrow and upside down.

When we consider the substance as a whole range of field along with matter we start to have a much broader view. When we view from the theoretical state of EMPTINESS, instead of matter, the thinking reorients to right side up. We start to see the evolution of physical substance.

The physical substance evolving from emptiness is the correct view.

The fundamental substance appears as disturbance in emptiness.  We postulate this substance to be energy. This energy evolves as the electromagnetic field of increasing frequency. The electromagnetic field may be described in terms of disturbance levels (DL) as base 2 logarithm of frequency. For example, the disturbance level of yellow light is DL 49 because its frequency is 5.8 x 1014 (249) Hz. This makes it possible to conveniently map the whole range of physical substance.

We may map the whole range of physical substance as DISTURBANCE LEVELS.

The disturbance levels on the electromagnetic spectrum may be listed as follows (see appendix below for the method of calculation):

Emptiness …………………………………. 0

Radio Waves (3 Hz – 3 GHz) ……………. 1.6 – 31

Microwaves (3 GHz – 300 GHz) ………… 31 – 38

Infrared (300 GHz – 300 THz) …………… 38 – 48.5

Visible (400 THz – 800 THz) …………….. 48.5 – 49.5

Ultraviolet (800 THz – 30 PHz) ………….. 49.5 – 54.7

X-Rays (30 PHz – 30 EHz) ……………….. 54.7 – 64.7

Gammy Rays (> 30 EHz) …………………. 64.7 and greater

Electron ……………………………………… 66.7

Proton ………………………………………… 77.6

Neutron ………………………………………. 77.6

Earth ………………………………………….. 235.6

Sun ………..………………………………….. 256.6

 

We may now compare this reference point to the reference point used in the theory of relativity by Einstein.

Inertial Frame of Relativity

Einstein borrowed the inertial frame from Galileo and Newton and applied it to Relativity. This frame of reference views light (DL 49) from the reference of matter (DL 138.4 minimum). It is an upside down view.

The inertial frame of relativity views light from the reference of matter.

The speed of light is very close to the universal constant ‘c’, which is essentially a fixed ratio of space to time.  Einstein correctly assumed ‘c’ to be a universal constant. Because of this constant we can treat space-time as a single entity.

Space-time is a single property because time is related to space by ‘c’.

But even as a single entity, space-time scales up and down with disturbance levels, or inertia. The space-time at the level of matter is not the same space-time at the level of light. The inertia of light is many orders of magnitude lower than matter, but it is not zero because it has a disturbance level.

The inertia of light is not zero.

By saying that the “speed of light” is constant in all inertial frames, Einstein is basically assuming that the inertia of light is either zero, or insignifant to the inertial frames based on matter.

The theory of relativity ignores the inertia of light.

There is no doubt that Einstein’s theory of relativity has been very successful, but this success has occurred only where the phenomena has been material (DL > 138.4). For phenomemon of disturbance levels, such as, when considering quantum or electromagnetic phenomena, the inertia of light cannot be ignored.

The inertia of light cannot be ignored for electromagnetic and quantum phenomena.

An approach based on the zero inertia at the lower end of electromagnetic spectrum shall apply to the whole range of phenomena from electromagnetic to quantum to material.

The reference point of zero inertia at the lower end of the electromagnetic spectrum applies universally to the whole range of physical substance.

This is the reference point used by the Disturbance Theory.

.

APPENDIX

If the frequency is ‘f’ then the disturbance level is “log f / log 2”.

The frequency associated with a mass object is calculated as follows:

De Broglie Equation,       λ = h/p,

where h is Plank’s constant, and p is momentum

Frequency,                       f = c/λ = (c/h) p = 4.528 x 1041 p

Disturbance level,          DL = (log f) / (log 2) = 138.4 + 3.322 log p

For earth,

ME = 5.972 x 1024 kg, and VE = 3 x 104 m/s

Hence, p = ME VE = 1.79 x 1029

Therefore, DL (earth) = 235.6

.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

electromagnetic-spectrum

Reference: Disturbance Theory

.

The variations in the frequency of field cover the whole electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom of this spectrum lies the EMPTINESS of zero frequency. At the top is the mass as seen in the nucleus of an atom. The layers of this spectrum build up in the following sequence.

  1. Emptiness (theoretical)
  2. Radio waves
  3. Microwave radiation
  4. Terahertz radiation
  5. Infrared radiation
  6. Visible radiation
  7. Ultraviolet radiation
  8. X-ray radiation
  9. Gamma radiation
  10. Mass

This whole spectrum of field may be seen in an atom from its outermost boundary to its center. The gamma rays are seen to be emitted by the nucleus, and X-rays from inner electrons.

The substance of field appears in emptiness in the form of disturbance at the beginning of this spectrum. The disturbance has a frequency. The frequency maintains itself and does not disappear. This property is recognized as inertia. In general, inertia is the resistance of physical substance to any change in its state of motion. Any effort to change frequency activates the restoring force of inertia. Thus, inertia “pins down” a phenomenon made up of frequencies, against the backdrop of emptiness.

As we move up the spectrum, the frequency increases and the field become denser in terms of its cycles. Each cycle has constant energy equal to the Planck’s constant ‘h‘. Therefore, energy of the field increases at a location in proportion to the frequency and becomes more focused in character. This leads to quantization at higher frequencies.

The wavelength to period ratio is also constant as represented by ‘c‘. Therefore, both wavelength and period shrink together inversely proportional to frequency. This is like extensions of the field consolidating themselves and gaining in endurance with increase in frequency. We see the extensions of the field as SPACE and their endurance as TIME.

The constants described above ensure the continuity of different regions of the field that are at different frequencies. These regions are bounded by smooth gradients of frequency. These gradients manifest as tension or force. These forces then become part of the field. We recognize these forces as gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear, etc. These forces differ in their nature depending on the sharpness of the gradient as well as on their relative position on the spectrum.

As energy increases with frequency and forces become stronger, inertia also increases to balance them. If forces are represented by acceleration (increased motion relative to itself) then inertia is represented by “negative” acceleration (quantization). Basic inertia appears as permeability and permittivity. It balances the dynamic of conversion between electric (kinetic) and magnetic (potential) aspects of a cycle. This shows up in the constant rate of propagation of electromagnetic disturbance within the field.

With increasing frequency, inertia seems to develop into a structure of disturbance, which we may refer to as “quantization into mass”. Actual mass appears to be made up of high frequency of infinitesimal cycles that border into forming a continuum. The quantization into mass seems to start out like “eddies are forming in a flow”. We may identify these “eddies” as the multitudes of quantum particles. Thus the primary characteristic of quantization into mass appears to be rotational.

The rotational nature of mass tends to pin it down and reduce its linear motion. This also increases inertia. We may relate this inertia to natural speeds of quantum particles as we do so for the speed of light. The natural tendency for disturbance is to spread at infinite speed, but that tendency gets checked by inertia into a balanced finite speed. As inertia increases the “free speed” of the phenomenon reduces.

External force when impressed on a field increases its frequency, and thus becomes internalized as inertia. This may describe the conservation of force of Faraday.

The Newton’s Laws of motion apply to inertia at the level of matter at the top of the electromagnetic spectrum. At this level force manifests as acceleration of the “quantized” physical object, while inertia acts as “resistance to acceleration”. The balance of the two determines the “free speed” of the object.

Where the levels of inertia are far apart by many orders of magnitude, the vector addition is replaced by relativistic addition. A more exact algorithm needs to be developed to find the resultant motion of phenomena of different inertia interacting together.

.

SUMMARY

The Electromagnetic spectrum reduces to the emptiness of background as frequency goes to zero. Emptiness has no substance, which is represented by zero inertia. We may use it as the absolute reference point.

Substance seems to enter the picture with the disturbance of emptiness. We may look at the electromagnetic phenomenon whose substance is “disturbance”. The electromagnetic spectrum is a spectrum of this substance represented by inertia.

As the disturbance increases in frequency, its complexity increases. This is manifested as increase in inertia. Toward the upper end of the spectrum, where the frequency is very high, the inertia starts to manifest itself as particles of mass.

This spectrum is visible from the outer boundary of the atom to the nucleus at the center of the atom, as increasing substance and inertia.

.

Electromagnetic Spectrum (Wikipedia)

 

EM_Spectrum_Properties_edit.svg

Reference: Disturbance Theory

.

Parts from Wikipedia article are quoted in black. My comments follow in bold color italics.

Electromagnetic Spectrum – Wikipedia

The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range and scope (spectrum) of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum of frequencies applies not only to the radiation but also to the fabric of the three-dimensional field. In this field the Faraday’s lines of force appear as frequency gradients.

The electromagnetic spectrum extends from below the low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength (high-frequency) end, thereby covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom. Visible light lies toward the shorter end, with wavelengths from 400 to 700 nanometers. The limit for long wavelengths is the size of the universe itself, while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length. Until the middle of the 20th century it was believed by most physicists that this spectrum was infinite and continuous.

The lowest frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum shall theoretically be zero. At zero frequency there is no cycle, inertia, energy, extension or duration. In short, there is no substance, and therefore, no space or time. We may refer to this state as “absence of all phenomena”, or EMPTINESS. It shall act as a reference point for the universe, much like zero is the reference point for the scale.

As we move up from this point on the electromagnetic spectrum we have cycles appearing with increasing frequency. As a result, the field becomes denser, and the energy becomes more focused. This makes the substance of the field acquire more inertia. The extensions of the field become increasingly enduring, meaning both space and time become more apparent.

Nearly all types of electromagnetic radiation can be used for spectroscopy, to study and characterize matter. Other technological uses are described under electromagnetic radiation.

As the frequency increases different properties appear in interaction of field with matter. Field appears to condense into mass particles in the gamma range.

.

Inertia and Field

elec_mag_field

Reference: Disturbance Theory

.

The field maintains itself through continual change. This property of maintaining a status quo is called INERTIA. Inertia was first observed by Newton in the context of matter.

Newton defined inertia in his book “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” as follows:

The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.

The reality of field was not known at the time of Newton. Now we know that field is a substance more fundamental than matter. So the concept of inertia may now be extended to the electromagnetic field.

The electromagnetic field must form itself continually in each cycle in order to exist Permittivity (ε) is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium. Permeability (μ) is a measure of how easily a magnetic field can pass through a medium.

The electromagnetic field forms in an empty background. For this formation the permittivity is ε0, and the permeability is μ0. Therefore, this formation faces a resistance equal to (μ0ε0). This resistance is a form of inertia.

The speed of light in the empty background is, c = 3 x 108 meters per second. This rate of propagation is finite because the formation of each cycle of light faces a finite resistance. If there were no resistance the speed of light shall be infinite.

There is relationship between the resistance to formation and the rate of propagation of light. This relationship is:

c = 1/√(μ0ε0)

The resistance “μ0ε0”represents the inertia of the electromagnetic field in the empty background. The units of “μ0ε0 are s2/m2.

Inertia, therefore, is an aspect of the very formation of substance.

.