Category Archives: P-Book

The Physics Book.

Newton, Einstein & Inertia


Reference: Disturbance Theory


In Newtonian mechanics, the motion of a body (of constant mass) is defined by its velocity. In its default state, a body drifting in space at uniform velocity may be subject to forces, such as, gravity, but all those forces are in equilibrium.

Per Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader, the Newton’s Laws of Motion are,

Law I: Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
Law II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.
Law III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.

Thus, the uniform drift velocity of a body in space does not change, unless its state of equilibrium is changed by some external force. Newton states,

“The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line.”

The default uniform velocity of a body is maintained by its innate force of inertia, which keeps it in equilibrium.


MRF & Inertia

Per Newton’s second law, the force necessary to change a body’s velocity is proportional to its mass. The more is the mass of a body, the greater is the force required to disturb its uniform drift velocity. Thus mass provides inertia to the body.

The mass of a body acts as inertia that maintains its uniform drift velocity.

In the MRF (material reference frame) the uniform velocity is considered relative to the velocities of other bodies, such as the earth and the sun. However, in the SRF (space reference frame) the reasoning allows us to associate absolute rest with infinite mass [see Reference Frames: MRF vs SRF]. Thus, the uniform drift velocity of a body may be associated with its mass.

The uniform drift velocity of a body must decrease as its mass or inertia increases.

Mass not only increases with density, but also with bulk. The mass of an atom increases throughout the periodic table.


SRF & Inertia

The concept of inertia has been confined to matter as it was the only condition of substance known in Newton’s time. With Einstein the concept of substance has now been extended to include electromagnetic “energy”. Since inertia is a fundamental concept associated with matter as substance, we may extend it further to electromagnetic “energy” as a property of substance. Thus, SRF highlights a dimension of inertia that is not so obvious in MRF.

Inertia describes how substantial a substance is.

In SRF, the frequency increases throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, and collapses as mass at the upper end. Frequency and mass are equivalent properties of substance. The concept of inertia as substantial-ness shall apply to both frequency and mass. What happens with mass in MRF may be generalized as happening also with frequency in SRF. We may sum it all up as,

Velocity decreases as the inertia (indicated by frequency or mass) increases.


Inertia & Quantization

In his very first paper published in 1905 Einstein established the concept of “energy quanta” or “light quanta”. The manifestation of light quantum (photon) becomes more pronounced as the frequency of electromagnetic energy increases [see Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta (1905)]. Einstein received Nobel Prize for this discovery.

Einstein thus introduced quantization as the phenomenon of increasing inertia. A continuous function at low frequency increasingly becomes discrete at higher frequencies. This is accompanied by the electromagnetic “substance” becoming more compact and durable.

This brings to mind a contour map where elevations are marked by contour lines, and where contours of higher elevation appear within the contours of lower elevations. In the case of electromagnetic field, the contours of higher frequencies shall appear within the contours of lower frequencies as the field becomes more compact with increasing frequency. Compactness indicates higher inertia.

Regions of higher inertia appear to be discretely placed within the regions of lower inertia of the field.

This may explain the transition from continuous electromagnetic field to discrete matter in SRF.


Further Research

The SRF thus introduces the dimension of inertia in which MRF occupies a very small portion at the higher end. On this dimension the basic substance of the field transitions from continuity to discreteness. This is understood as quantization. Quantization seems to contribute rapidly to inertia.

The next step is to explore the process of quantization and how it contributes to inertia.


Reference Frames: MRF vs SRF


Reference: Disturbance Theory


When we switch the frame of reference from MRF (material reference frame) to SRF (space reference frame) [see Frame of Reference & Einstein], we find ourselves immediately in possession of new explanations for many fundamental concepts in theoretical physics.

The idea of velocity belongs to MRF. It refers to how fast or how slow an object is moving. The idea of frequency belongs to SRF. It refers to how fast or how slow a cycle is repeating. The common denominator of both velocity and frequency appears to be the perception of time.


Time is Absolute

The perception of time comes from the passing of instants. We may perceive the unit of time is an instant, which may be viewed as a “cycle”. No time elapses until an instant, or cycle, has passed.

Please note that a cycle may be subdivided into smaller cycles ad infinitum. It is, therefore, difficult to perceive of a single static cycle because it can always be subdivided. There are always going to be cycles, no matter how infinitesimal, that are accompanied by a frequency greater than zero. The concept of a static cycle or zero frequency shall always remain theoretical. However,

The concept of zero frequency provides a reference point for absolute time.


Space is Infinite Velocity

The space at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum represents a theoretical single cycle of zero frequency. This is like having a permanent instant of time that never passes.

When this cycle of space is superimposed over some “material distance”, it represents the same instant throughout that material distance. Thus, no time shall pass in traversing of this “material distance” even when that distance is infinite. This would be infinite velocity in MRF.

Space is a static instant that translates as infinite velocity in MRF.


Frequency vs. Velocity

As frequency increases from the single static cycle of space, a sequence of instants start to appear; and we have passage of time.

As frequency increases, the instants (cycles) pass at increasing rates. When a higher frequency is superimposed over the same “material distance” considered for space, more instants must now pass in traversing that distance. This velocity shall be lower than the infinite velocity perceived for space from the perspective of MRF.

As frequency increases in SRF, the velocity decreases in MRF.


The Velocity of Light

As we go up in the electromagnetic spectrum, the frequency increases and the velocity decreases. The velocity of gamma radiation is expected to be smaller than the velocity of radio waves. There is already some indication of that (see High Energy Gamma Rays Go Slower than the Speed of Light?).

Thus there is a range of velocities over the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the difference in these velocities is so small that it imperceptible compared to the difference between the velocity of light and matter. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation is therefore represented by the single velocity of light ‘c’.

The value of ‘c’ is large but not infinite because the frequency of light has a value greater than 0.

The velocity of light is large but finite because it has a non-zero frequency.


Quantum Entanglement

Based on the explanation above, quantum entanglement may be explained as a phenomenon resulting from a frequency very close to zero.


Absolute Rest

In MRF, the velocity of matter is negligible compared to the velocity of light. Thus, matter seems to represent a near infinite frequency relative to the frequency of light.

Per Einstein, the mass-energy equivalence may be represented as “mass-frequency equivalence” as follows,

E = hf = mc2 ; ………………… hence f = (c2/h) m

Therefore, in MRF, the frequency is so large that it collapses into mass. This is evident in the atom, where frequency is rapidly increasing toward the center. At the center it collapses and produces the nucleus.

In MRF, the velocity shall continue to decrease as mass and its density increases; and this shall lead closer and closer to a position of absolute rest in space.

A black hole of infinite mass shall be completely at rest in an absolute sense.


Further Research

The SRF seems to clarify the concept of time. It also provides an absolute sense of velocity compared to the relative velocity in MRF.

It is now time to explore the fundamental concept of inertia advanced by Newton.


Frame of Reference & Einstein

Frame 1

Reference: Disturbance Theory


A frame of reference is defined as the system that forms the basis of measurements of space and other dimensions. Newton’s frame of reference requires that Newton’s first law holds true. In this frame a free particle travels in a straight line at constant speed, or is at rest. Here all laws of physics take on their simplest form. These frames are related by simple Galilean transformations.


Material Reference Frame (MRF)

Newton’s frame of reference is based on matter. Space, even when it is empty is measured as if it is the “extension of matter”. Measurements of other dimensions are also based on the idea that matter is the fundamental substance.

This has been the frame of reference used by all scientists from antiquity until the present. Newton formalized it. Einstein made interesting modifications to it. We may call this frame of reference based on matter as the “material reference frame” (MRF).

The MRF (material reference frame) is based on the properties of matter.

Einstein retains the MRF in his theory of relativity; but he adds the condition that the speed of light must be constant for frames of references moving at different speeds. In Einstein’s frames of reference space moves at the same speed as the material object [see Relativity & Problem of Space (1952)]. Mathematically, Einstein treats space as “extension of material object”.

In the MRF of Einstein, space also moves with the object as its extension.


Lorentz Transformations

In special theory of relativity, the “velocity of the observer” is, mathematically, the velocity of the space of the observational frame of reference. This velocity is measured relative to the “stationary” space of the sun. This velocity ‘v’ is then compared to the speed of light ‘c’, which is constant for all moving frames. The ratio ‘v/c’ then determines the transformation of space moving at velocity ‘v’.

The famous Lorentz transformations of the special theory of relativity provide the following relationships.

Lorentz Boost

It is shown mathematically from these relationships that as velocity ‘v’ increases, the space contracts and becomes more durable.

Space contracts and becomes more durable as its “velocity” increases.

This is exactly what happens as frequency increases up the electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom of the spectrum is space made up of single field cycle [see The Problem of Space]. With increasing frequency this cycle multiplies and becomes more compact and durable.

The “velocity” of space is equivalent to space increasing in frequency as a field as one moves up the electromagnetic spectrum.


Space Reference Frame (SRF)

The electromagnetic spectrum thus provides a “space reference frame” (SRF) that is referenced from space situated at the bottom of this spectrum.

The electromagnetic spectrum represents electromagnetic substance, which is also referred to as electromagnetic energy. Einstein’s discovery of light quanta [see Einstein’s Paper on Light Quanta (1905)], and his famous equation, E = mc2, indicates that electromagnetic energy is equivalent to mass at higher frequencies. It is, then, not far-fetched to assume that as frequency increases, the electromagnetic substance ultimately condenses into mass. This is evident from the presence of nucleus at the center of the atom.

In other words, matter lies at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the bottom end of the electromagnetic spectrum lies space.

The MRF (material reference frame) uses matter at the top of the electromagnetic spectrum as its reference point. The theory of relativity, however, points to an SRF (space reference frame) that uses space at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum as its reference point.

The SRF (space reference frame) is based on the properties of space.


Further Research

The conclusions of the special theory of relativity make more sense in the “space reference frame (SRF) than in the “material reference frame” (MRF). Therefore, the meaning of Einstein’s theory of relativity needs to be explored further in SRF.


The Problem of Distance


Reference: Disturbance Theory


We measure “empty space” in our material domain as if matter is stored in it. But that “empty space” is actually filled with field. Since space is the extension of substance we should measure space by its actual content.

We measure distance on the surface of earth by its material content. This is perfectly valid as long as that distance is being associated with the surface of earth. But when it comes to the measurement of distance in interstellar space, it seems that associating it with earth’s surface may not be totally valid.


The Material Space

The electromagnetic cycles are packed so closely in the nucleus of an atom that we may consider them to be “collapsed”. In other words, the electromagnetic substance within the nucleus appears as a continuum instead of being made up of discrete cycles. We call this continuum “mass”.

We may measure the distance over the surface of earth by counting the number of “collapsed” electromagnetic cycles. Instead we use arbitrary units of length, such as, a foot or a meter, because that is more convenient.

But the point is,

A distance may be determined by counting the number of cycles.


The Field Space

The distance in field space may be compared with the distance in material space by taking into account the “compactness” of cycles by looking at frequency. The gamma rays are 50,000 times more compact than visible light. Therefore, the distance is 50,000 times more compact in the gamma region compared to visible light region. it is logical to assume that the average distance within the atom, or the material distance, shall be still more compact. Let’s assume the material distance to be about 60,000 times more compact than the distance in terms of the visible light cycles.

In other words, the distance in terms of light cycles shall shrink 60,000 times when measured in terms of material cycles.

So the field space out there is really not that large when measured on the basis of material space. Light travels at the speed of 3 x 108 meters per second in “light space”. If we look at that speed in terms of “material space” it would be about 5000 meters/second, or 11,185 miles per hour. This may give us some idea of “light cycle distance” when converted to “material cycle distance”. This is a very conservative estimate. The earth distance could be still more compact.


The Theory of Relativity

The theory of relativity identifies this phenomena as “length contraction” as the speed of light is approached. The distance appears to shrink because we are looking at it from the perspective of the material domain.

The Newtonian mechanics uses the material frame of reference. The theory of relativity ventures beyond Newtonian mechanics into electromagnetic field, but it still uses the material frame of reference.

This has generated much confusion about the subject of time.


Further Research

Einstein’s discovery of light quantum established field as a fundamental substance. It seems that field, at the upper limit of frequency, appears as matter. This observation is yet to be fully confirmed. But it is for certain that matter does not provide the only frame of reference.

Further research is needed to investigate the implications of shifting the frame of reference away from matter to field.


The Problem of Space


Reference: Disturbance Theory


After realising that field is a more basic substance than matter, Einstein finally comes to terms with the assertion of Descartes that space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space. 

Thus, the space, which we see as “empty” is actually the extension of an invisible field. This field was not known to Descartes when he boldly asserted based on philosophical reasoning that there is no empty space. If he were here today, he would have been highly satisfied with the discovery of the field.


History of Space

Historically, Aristotle viewed things as made of substance. To him, matter and thought were complementary principles. Space was included in the concept of substance.

Descartes postulated matter to be an abstract reality, independent of thought, whose inherent property was limited to extension. He, thus, saw matter separate from thought, and space as property of matter.

Newton developed Descartes’ notion of matter into the concept of material-substance that existed within an absolute space. The material-substance had intrinsic properties of extension, hardness, impenetrability, mobility, and inertia. He thus separated space from matter. Newton was, however, troubled by the notion of gravity as “action at a distance”.

Based on extensive experimentation, Faraday boiled down the phenomena of electricity and magnetism to the notion of “field” that acted as a medium for radiative phenomena and force. The field was made up of “lines of force” that originated from and terminated at material points. The field explained what appeared as “action at a distance”. Faraday identified space as field that formed the background medium of material bodies.

Maxwell saw Faraday’s approach to be compatible with the theory of potential from the mathematical discoveries of Laplace, Poisson, Green and Gauss. He came up with mathematical equations that showed radiative phenomena, such as, light, to be electromagnetic in nature that carried force and energy. Maxwell confirmed that Faraday’s field was real. From this followed the discovery of electromagnetic spectrum made up of electromagnetic cycles of increasing frequency.

Einstein then discovered that electromagnetic cycles that could be described by a continuous function at lower frequencies gradually became quantized at higher frequencies (see Einstein’s 1905 Paper on Light Quanta). Thus, light acted as wave and also as a particle. This showed light (and field in general) to be a real substance in its own right more fundamental than matter.


Space as Extension

Per Descartes, space is substance’s inherent property of extension. It does not exist in the absence of substance.

With the discovery of field as a substance more fundamental than matter, the philosophical assertion of Descartes becomes a physical reality. Space is not just something abstract or mathematical. It is as real as the substance of matter of field.

Space is the extension of substance (matter or field).


“Empty Space” is Field

Thus, the “empty space” is not really empty. There is an invisible field that takes the place of visible matter.

We have been measuring space by the amount of material substance that can be stored in it. This is true only when space represents the extension of actual matter. When the space represents the extension of field, it should be measured by the amount of field substance that can be stored in it.

“Empty space” is correctly measured by the amount of field substance actually present.


The Basic Space

The fundamental state of substance is a single field cycle that extends into infinity. This extension is space. Therefore, space is synonymous with the substance of a single field cycle. Thus, the basic space appears at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The basic space is the single field cycle at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends into infinity.

Below the level of basic space there is no electromagnetic spectrum. This is “absence of substance”, which was postulated as emptiness earlier (see The Postulates).


Further Research

As we move up the electromagnetic spectrum, the frequency increases. The space starts to become more substantial as a field. This requires a closer study of the field.