*Reference: **A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics*

Terms, such as, force, mass, velocity and energy acquire their meaning from the mathematical formulations of Newtonian mechanics. The system created from this Newtonian “particles in void” framework is, however, unable to explain “action at a distance”. Therefore, we must evaluate its terms carefully beyond their narrow mathematical meanings.

Newton states in his Principia ^{1},

DEFINITION III:Thevis insita,or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting, by which every body, as much as in it lies, continues in its present state, whether it be of rest, or of moving uniformly forwards in a right line.

Force constitutes the very power of matter. We perceive matter based on its effect on our senses as force. Force is the primary concept. Other concepts, such as inertia, mass and energy are derived from force.

Faraday looked at force as the “power of substance” where substance includes not only the “mass” of matter, but also the “energy” of radiative phenomena. Faraday’s concept of force goes beyond the mathematical description of force as “*mass x acceleration*”. Faraday’s principle of conservation of force includes the conservation of mass, energy and motion (momentum). Faraday says ^{2},

There is no question which lies closer to the root of all physical knowledge, than that which inquires whether force can be destroyed or not. The progress of the strict science of modern times has tended more and more to produce the conviction that “force can neither be created nor destroyed,” and to render daily more manifest the value of the knowledge of that truth in experimental research. To admit, indeed, that force may be destructible or can altogether disappear, would be to admit that matter could be uncreated; for we know matter only by its forces: and though one of these is most commonly referred to, namely gravity, to prove its presence, it is not because gravity has any pretension, or any exemption amongst the forms of force, as regards the principle of conservation; but simply that being, as far as we perceive, inconvertible in its nature and unchangeable in its manifestation, it offers an unchanging test of the matter which we recognize by it.

Therefore, Faraday insisted that the principle of conservation of force be included in every hypothesis, theory or definition, because unless this principle is satisfied, no study can be considered complete.

Supposing that the truth of the principle of the conservation of force is assented to, I come to

its uses.No hypothesis should be admitted nor any assertion of a fact credited, that denies the principle. No view should be inconsistent or incompatible with it. Many of our hypotheses in the present state of science may not comprehend it, and may be unable to suggest its consequences; but none should oppose or contradict it.

As
an example, we may apply this conservation principle of Faraday to the
following anomaly in Newtonian Mechanics ^{1}:

*When a force is applied to a
body, it accelerates. When the force is removed there is no more acceleration,
but the body continues to move with the increased velocity.*

**What keeps the body moving at the higher velocity?**

This question arises specifically in the case when the body is drifting in space light minutes away from the bodies influencing it through their gravitational fields. Let us consider the following example:

*When a constant force is applied to an object it starts to accelerate at a constant rate. Its velocity starts to increase. The force is constant and so is the acceleration, then what is converting into increased velocity and kinetic energy?*

Per Newton’s definition,

DEFINITION II:The quantity of motion is the measure of the same arising from the velocity and quantity of matter conjointly.

To conserve the motion, as the velocity increase, the mass (inertia) must reduce. The mass reduces by converting into kinetic energy. The decrease in mass (inertia) would, however, be extremely small and imperceptible to cause a significant and perceptible increase in velocity.

Furthermore, when the force is removed the acceleration goes away. But if the object continues to move at a higher speed, it must mean that its inertia stays reduced. We may, therefore, conclude:

**The velocity of an object drifting in space is a function of its mass (inertia). As its velocity increases, its mass decreases commensurately. **

Theoretically, a body in space can be at absolute rest if its mass is infinite. Its inertia would be so large that the gravitational forces cannot push it around. But as its mass decreases it gets pushed around and it acquires a velocity inversely proportional to its mass. A body of near zero mass shall have a velocity of near infinity. We observe this phenomenon with the velocity of light, where the mass is zero and the velocity is extremely large. Light has some inertia due to quantization, which makes its velocity finite.

Newton did not discount absolute velocities as he says ^{1},

But we may distinguish rest and motion, absolute and relative, one from the other by their properties, causes and effects. It is a property of rest, that bodies really at rest do rest in respect to one another. And therefore as it is possible, that in the remote regions of the fixed stars, or perhaps far beyond them, there may be some body absolutely at rest; but impossible to know, from the position of bodies to one another in our regions whether any of these do keep the same position to that remote body; it follows that absolute rest cannot be determined from the position of bodies in our regions.

That remote body absolutely at rest could be at the center of our milky way. Therefore, we may determine the absolute velocity of a body in terms of its mass (inertia).

**The exact relationship of absolute velocity to mass still remains to be determined, but it is likely to be inversely proportional. **

It is possible that the constant of proportionality, if it exists, may turn out to be a universal constant. The application of the Faraday’s principle of Conservation of Force thus fixes the uncertainty associated with the uniform velocity of a body drifting in space.

Hopefully Faraday’s principle of Conservation of Force shall lead us to a better understanding of the nature of the particles and void.

.

^{1 }*“**Newton’s Principia**” (1686) Translation by
Andrew Motte, American edition of 1846, p. 73*

^{1 }

^{2 }*“**On the Conservation of
Force**” by Michael Faraday (1857), Proceedings of the Royal
Institution, Vol. II, p. 352*

^{2 }

.

## Comments

The above problem may be looked at differently as follows:

Suppose a body of mass

mstart to get pushed by a constant forceF.The acceleration of the body goes from0toa. The forceFdoes not change. So the accelerationadoes not change either.The body continues to accelerate and its velocity continues to increase. This increase in velocity is not relative but absolute. There is an actual change in the

KE(kinetic energy) of the body.As the force

Fcontinues to be applied, theKEcontinues to increase. The force is not changing. Everything is the same except for theKE.So where does the increase in KE coming from?The answer, according the paper above is that

Under application of a constant force, the mass of the body starts to convert into KE.But mass denotes substance. A substance may convert into another kind of substance. That means

KEmust be some kind of substance. The only substance there beside matter is radiation. That means that absolute increase inKEin space is a generation of radiation.Therefore, one may arrive at the conclusion that

Under application of a constant force, the mass starts to convert into radiation..

A force acting on a body changes its speed, but not total motion (momentum).

I have revised the above paper to make my arguments more pursuasive.

In uniform motion, the inertia of a celestial body balances the gravitational forces. As the body wanders through the gravitational field its acceleration fluctuates a bit. Mass acts as the proportionality factor. Whenever acceleration reduces to zero the limiting speed settles to a value governed by the mass of the body.

The natural speed in uniform motion depends on the mass of the body.A gravitational field is made up of lines of force. A gravitational “charge” is mass which acts as a center of force. Here the lines of force terminate and originate. The lines of force are concentrared in the mass.

The mass “charges” are all additive.

Mass is motion divided by speed. It is also force divided by acceleration.

Speed is motion per mass particle. Acceleration is force per mass particle.