## Substance, Motion and Inertia

##### Reference: A Logical Approach to Theoretical Physics

With the discovery of quantization, the concept of substance expands. We see quantization as thickening of substance, which, ultimately congeals as matter. This is supported by the correspondence principle.  This may be visualized as happening within the atom.

Force seems to be the very characteristic of substance. The concept of substance expands beyond matter to radiation and raw force. The concepts of motion and inertia shall change with the quantization of substance.

The following and subsequent quotes are from NEWTON’S PRINCIPIA:

Definition I: The quantity of matter is the measure of the same, arising from its density and bulk conjunctly.

Thus, quantity of matter is the product of its density and volume.

The quantity of radiation may be described analogously as the product of its quantization level (frequency) and intensity.

Definition II: The quantity of motion is the measure of the same, arising from the velocity and quantity of matter conjunctly.

For a material body, the quantity of motion is the product of its velocity and the quantity of matter. This is also called momentum.

For radiation, the quantity of motion is the product of its frequency and the quantity of radiation.

Definition III: The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting, by which every body, as much as in it lies, endeavours to persevere in its present state, whether it be of rest, or of moving uniformly forward in a right line.

For a material body, a change in motion means a change in velocity because matter changes little. Resistance to this change in velocity is called inertia of the material body. Inertia keeps the motion (velocity) of the material body uniform in space.

For radiation, a change in motion means a change in frequency because velocity changes little. Resistance to this change in frequency may be called
quantization. The quantization of radiation is very small, but it keeps the motion (frequency) of radiation uniform in space.

Definition IV: An impressed force is an action exerted upon a body, in order to change its state, either of rest, or of moving uniformly forward in a right line.

A force must be impressed upon the body to change its motion over the resistance of inertia.  This inertia makes the change in velocity (acceleration) of the body proportional to the force applied. As mass of the body increases, so does its inertia, which makes it increasingly  difficult to accelerate the body.

Theoretically, a body of infinite mass shall have infinite inertia, and it would be impossible to accelerate. We may consider such a body to be absolutely fixed in space. The body becomes less fixed as its mass decreases. When mass decreases to zero the substance reduces to radiation, and inertia sharply reduces to quantization, making it barely fixed in space.

NOTE: We may define space here as “radiation” of zero quantization.

LAW I: Every body perseveres in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed thereon.

LAW II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.

LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.

The motion is changed through force, where force can be applied only through contact. As an example, contact occurs between radiation and matter in photoelectric phenomenon. If radiation applies force to matter then the matter must apply force back to radiation. This may result in a visible increase in the frequency of radiation, increasing its quantization level. If the increased quantization is maintained then it must be accompanied by a decrease in velocity, no matter how imperceptible.

A substance, as radiation and matter, is fixed in space to the degree it is substantial. As radiation the substance is not very substantial and it is barely fixed. The substantiality of radiation increases slowly with quantization. The substantiality, however, increases very sharply when radiation transitions into matter. This transition occurs within the atom at the interface between the electronic and nuclear regions. Even as matter it continues to quantize into denser matter.

The characteristic of substantiality or fixedness of substance determines its inertia. This inertia is very low throughout the region of radiation, and it is comparatively very high throughout the domain of matter.

The speed seems to change sharply with the level of inertia. The speed is very high throughout the region of radiation (known as the speed of light), and it is comparatively very low throughout the domain of matter.

Because of inertia, the change in motion is proportional to the force impressed. For matter, the proportionality factor is the mass, and the change in motion appears as change in speed. The mass represents inertia.

For radiation, the proportionality factor appears to be the speed of light, and the change in motion appears as change in frequency. The frequency represents the quantization.

To summarize, motion appears as velocity for matter, but as frequency for radiation. Inertia is represented by mass in case of matter, and by quantization in case of radiation. With these considerations taken into account Newton’s laws may be applied to radiation.

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