Reference: Disturbance Theory
We are used to looking at space and time from the perspective of matter. Galileo, Newton and even Einstein launched their theories using a material reference frame. When Einstein looked at space and time closely he started to realize that a more fundamental basis than matter was space-time.
To study space and time from the viewpoint of matter is backwards. Space and time are more fundamental. They have no inertia, whereas matter has inertia. It is more logical to study matter from the basis of space and time. Attempts of the theory of relativity to study space and time from a material basis has led to strange concepts, such as, “length contraction” and “time dilation”. Both Inertial and Non-inertial reference frames have a material basis. We may categorize them as material reference frame (MRF).
If Einstein had lived longer he, definitely, would have developed a non-material reference frame based on field to understand space, time, energy and matter. Such a reference frame would devoid of inertia. We may call such a basis the space reference frame (SRF). It is interesting to note that the moment we shift our basis from MRF to SRF, the strangeness associated with space and time disappears.
Space has no inertia, but something is there. We know that the speed of a wave is determined by the properties of the medium in which it is traveling; and not by its frequency or wavelength. Maxwell determined that the speed of light could be determined by the electromagnetic properties in pure space.
But the problem was the belief that a medium without inertia was not possible. A very fine medium with material like properties was postulated in late 19th century to explain light as a wave. It was called “ether”. However. “ether” was found not to exist by the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. This led to Einstein’s theory of relativity.
The theory of relativity acknowledges the constant speed of light in space. It even acknowledges the electromagnetic nature of light. Furthermore, it implies that matter is “condensation” of electromagnetic energy per the equation E = mc2. But it continues to measure the speed of light using matter as its reference frame.
Can inertia-less space be used as the reference frame?
By light, we don’t just mean the visible light. It refers to the whole electromagnetic spectrum from low frequency radio waves to very high frequency gamma rays. The question arises, “How low can the frequency of electromagnetic radiation go? Can it go all the way down to zero? What does that imply? Does the electromagnetic phenomenon arise due to a disturbance of space? ”
The moment we consider that the electromagnetic phenomenon emanates from space rather than from matter it becomes possible to use space as the reference frame. This is the basis of the Disturbance Theory.
The Disturbance Theory postulates that space breaks into electric and magnetic fields when disturbed.
The electromagnetic phenomenon as “disturbance of space” has a large range of frequencies and wavelengths. This range is represented by the electromagnetic spectrum consisting of radio waves, microwaves, infra-red light, visible light, ultra-violet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. Since the spectrum extends over a very large range of frequencies, it may be managed more conveniently as Disturbance Levels on a logarithmic scale of base 2 (similar to octaves).
Disturbance Level Frequency
0 20 or 1
1 21 or 2
2 22 or 4
3 23 or 8
The disturbance levels of some of the electromagnetic frequencies and particles are as follows
EM Frequency Disturbance Level
Visible light ……………….. ~ 49.0
Gamma Rays ……………… ~ 65.0
Electron ………………………. 66.7
Proton ………………………… 77.6
Neutron ……………………….. 77.6
If the Electromagnetic spectrum originates from space then it seems to end in “matter”. This seems to be evident as we look at the structure of the atom. Let’s visualize walking from the center of atom outwards towards its boundary.
At the center of the atom we find the nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons. The disturbance levels of these nucleons are in upper gamma range. When this nucleus is disturbed it emits gamma rays. Here we seem to be looking at the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum as “matter”.
Immediately surrounding the nucleus is the region of electrons. The disturbance level of electrons is at the beginning of the gamma range. There is a high gradient (large step change) of disturbance levels from the electrons to the nucleons. This probably points to a sharply defined boundary of the nucleus separating it from the electronic region.
Immediately surrounding the electronic region of the atom there seems to be an electromagnetic field. This is similar to the electric field surrounding an electron. Again there is a high gradient of disturbance levels from the electromagnetic field to the electronic region. This probably describes the boundary of the atom.
The electromagnetic field continues beyond the atom and lessens in its disturbance levels until it becomes the space itself. This way the whole electromagnetic spectrum from space to matter seems to be demonstrated in the structure of the atom.
Atoms thus appear like tiny whirlpools of electromagnetic phenomenon in space when we visualize them in the space reference frame (SRF).